Effect of 3-Month Lysine Supplementation on Growth and Muscle Function Parameters in Pre-pubertal Indian Girls
Keywords:Lysine supplementation, handgrip, muscle strength, growth
AbstractLysine is the limiting amino acid in the predominantly cereal and legume based typical Indian diet and its supplementation has been shown to positively affect muscle strength in short term adult and animal models; but similar studies are lacking in children. This study looked at the effect of a 3-month lysine and iron intervention on muscle strength and growth parameters in prepubertal Indian girls. The study was a randomized controlled trial conducted in 40 normal Indian girls in the 9-10 yrs age group. The control group received only iron (6.25mg) supplementation, while the intervention group received both iron and lysine supplementation that increased the lysine intake to 50mg/kg/day. Muscle strength was estimated in both upper limbs with a hand dynamometer and muscle endurance was estimated in the non-dominant hand. Height and weight were recorded to assess growth. A significant difference was seen in the increase in the non-dominant hand grip strength between the groups (intervention: 1.4 vs control: 0.2 kg, p=0.042) at the end of the study. There was a trend of increased height gain (about 25%) and weight gain (about 50%) in the intervention group compared to control group. Lysine supplementation for 3 months increased non-dominant forearm muscle strength in Indian children.
How to Cite
All the articles published in IJND are distributed under a creative commons license. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright of their work (all usages allowed except for commercial purpose).
Please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org for permissions related to commercial use of the article(s).
Unni, U.S., Raj, T., Sambashivaiah, S., Kuriyan, R., Uthappa, S., Vaz, M. and Kurpad, A.V. The effect of a controlled 8-week metabolic ward based lysine supplementation on muscle function, insulin sensitivity and leucine kinetics in young men. Clin. Nutr., 2012, 31, 903-910. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2012.03.008.
Kurpad, A.V., Regan, M.M., Raj, T., El-Khoury, A., Kuriyan, R., Vaz, M. and Young, V.R.
Lysine requirements of healthy adult Indian subjects receiving long-term feeding, measured with a 24-h indicator amino acid oxidation and balance technique. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2002, 76, 404-412. doi:10.1093/ajcn/76.2.404.
Flakoll, P., Sharp, R., Baier, S., Levenhagen, D., Carr, C. and Nissen, S. Effect of betahydroxybeta-methylbutyrate, arginine and lysine supplementation on strength, functionality, body composition and protein metabolism in elderly women. Nutr., 2004, 20, 445-451. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2004.01.009.
Rutherfurd, S.M., Bains, K. and Moughan, P.J. Available lysine and digestible amino acid contents of proteinaceous foods of India. Br. J. Nutr., 2012, 108, S59-68. doi:10.1017/ S0007114512002280.
Engle-Stone, R., Aaron, G.J., Huang, J., Wirth, J.P., Namaste, S.M., Williams, A.M. and Suchdev, P.S. Predictors of anemia in preschool children: Biomarkers reflecting inflammation and nutritional determinants of anemia (BRINDA) project. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2017, 106, 402-415. doi:10.3945/ajcn.116.142323.
Hussain, T., Abbas, S., Khan, M.A. and Scrimshaw, N.S. Lysine fortification of wheat flour improves selected indices of the nutritional status of predominantly cereal-eating families in Pakistan. Fd. Nutr. Bull., 2004, 25, 114-122. doi:10.1177/156482650402500202.
Unni, U.S., Ramakrishnan, G., Raj, T., Kishore, R.P., Thomas, T., Vaz, M. and Kurpad, A.V. Muscle mass and functional correlates of insulin sensitivity in lean young Indian men. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 2009, 63, 1206-1212. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2009.32.
Leong, D.P., Teo, K.K., Rangarajan, S., Lopez-Jaramillo, P., Avezum, A., Jr. and Orlandini, A. Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology Study, prognostic value of grip strength: findings from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Lancet, 2015, 386, 266-273. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62000-6.
Volaklis, K.A., Halle, M. and Meisinger, C. Muscular strength as a strong predictor of mortality: A narrative review. Eur. J. Intern. Med., 2015, 26, 303-310. doi:10.1016/ j.ejim.2015.04.013
Zibellini, J., Seimon, R.V., Lee, C.M., Gibson, A.A., Hsu, M.S. and Sainsbury, A. Effect of diet-induced weight loss on muscle strength in adults with overweight or obesity - a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. Obes. Rev., 2016, 17, 647-663. doi:10.1111/obr.12422.
Recommendations to prevent and control iron deficiency in the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Recomm. Rep., 1998, 47 (RR-3), 1-29.
Tous, N., Lizardo, R., Vila, B., Gispert, M., Font, I.F.M. and Esteve-Garcia, E. Effect of reducing dietary protein and lysine on growth performance, carcass characteristics, intramuscular fat and fatty acid profile of finishing barrows. J. Anim. Sci., 2014, 92, 129-140. doi:10.2527/jas.2012-6222.
Ishida, A., Kyoya, T., Nakashima, K. and Katsumata, M. Muscle protein metabolism during compensatory growth with changing dietary lysine levels from deficient to sufficient in growing rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., (Tokyo), 2011, 57, 401-408. doi:10.3177/jnsv.57.401.
Sato, T., Ito, Y. and Nagasawa, T. Regulation of skeletal muscle protein degradation and synthesis by oral administration of lysine in rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., (Tokyo), 2013, 59, 412-419. doi:10.3177/jnsv.59.412..
Chen, J.D. Benefits of physical activity on nutrition and health status: studies in China.
Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr., 1995, 4, 29-33.
Pillai, R.R., Elango, R., Muthayya, S., Ball, R.O., Kurpad, A.V. and Pencharz, P.B. Lysine requirement of healthy, school-aged Indian children determined by the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. J. Nutr., 2010, 140, 54-59. doi:10.3945/jn.109.113357.
Uauy, R., Kurpad, A., Tano-Debrah, K., Otoo, G.E., Aaron, G.A., Toride, Y. and Ghosh, S. Role of protein and amino acids in infant and young child nutrition: protein and amino acid needs and relationship with child growth. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol (Tokyo)., 2015, 61, S192-194. doi:10.3177/jnsv.61.S192.
Khadilkar, V.V. and Khadilkar, A.V. Revised Indian Academy of Pediatrics 2015 growth charts for height, weight and body mass index for 5-18-year-old Indian children. Ind. J. Endocrinol. Metab., 2015, 19, 470-476. doi:10.4103/2230-8210.159028.
Kim, J., Lee, K.S., Kwon, D.H., Bong, J.J., Jeong, J.Y., Nam, Y.S. and Baik, M. Severe dietary lysine restriction affects growth and body composition and hepatic gene expression for nitrogen metabolism in growing rats. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr (Berl)., 2014, 98, 149-157. doi:10.1111/jpn.12061.
Harbo, T., Brincks, J. and Andersen, H. Maximal isokinetic and isometric muscle strength of major muscle groups related to age, body mass, height, and sex in 178 healthy subjects. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 2012, 112, 267-275. doi:10.1007/s00421-011-1975-3.
Chang, Y.O. and Chao, N. Influence of various levels of lysine intake on weight gain and body composition in rats. J. Agri. Fd. Chem., 1969, 17, 48-50. doi:10.1021/jf60161a002.