Immunotoxic and Genotoxic Potential of Arsenic and its Chemical Species in Goats
Keywords:Apoptosis, arsenic species, goat, immunotoxicity
AbstractThe study investigated the immunotoxic and genotoxic effect of arsenic and its different species on goats. It was found that arsenic causes haematological crisis. Histopathological changes in spleen and reduced serum immunoglobulin G level without any changes in formazan production in arsenic"‘treated animals indicated that arsenic is toxic to the humoral immune system. Increased caspase"‘3 production and higher number of TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase"‘mediated dUTP nick"‘end labelling)"‘positive bone marrow cells along with oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation on agarose gel suggested apoptosis induction by arsenic in the bone marrow cells of goat. Total arsenic concentration in the plasma, bone marrow, and spleen of the exposed group was, respectively, 1.22 ± 0.11, 2.20 ± 0.21, and 3.39 ± 0.14 ppm. Speciation study revealed that arsenite and organoarsenic were the major arsenic species in these samples, suggesting their role in immunotoxic and genotoxic potential in goats.
Tseng C. A review on environmental factors regulating arsenic methylation in humans. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2009;235:338"‘50.
Del Razo LM, Quintanilla"‘Vega B, Brambila"‘Colombres E, Calderon"‘Aranda ES, Manno M, Albores A. Stress proteins induced by arsenic. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2001;177:132"‘48.
Ratnaike RN. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity. Postgrad Med J 2003;79:391"‘6.
Guha Mazumder DN. Chronic arsenic toxicity and human health. Indian J Med Res 2008;128:436"‘47.
Majumdar KK, Guha Mazumder DN, Ghose N, Ghose A, Lahiri S. Systemic manifestations in chronic arsenic toxicity in absence of skin lesions in West Bengal. Indian J Med Res 2009;129:75"‘82.
Biswas U, Sarkar S, Bhowmik MK, Samanta AK, Biswas S. Chronic toxicity of arsenic in goats: Clinico"‘biochemical changes, pathomorphology and tissue residues. Small Rumin Res 2000;38:229"‘35.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological profile for arsenic. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Washington, DC: DHHS"‘ PHS; 2002.
Sakurai T, Ohta T, Tomita N, Kojima C, Hariya Y, Mizukami A, et al. Evaluation of immunotoxic and immunodisruptive effects of inorganic arsenite on human monocytes/macrophages. Int Immunopharmacol 2006;6:304"‘15.
Wang X. The expanding role of mitochondria in apoptosis. Genes Dev 2001;15:2922"‘33.
Thornberry NA, Lazebnik Y. Caspases: Enemies within. Science 1998;281:1312"‘6.
Patra PH, Bandyopadhyay S, Kumar R, Datta BK, Maji C, Biswas S, et al. Quantitative imaging of arsenic and its species in goat following long term oral exposure. Food Chem Toxicol 2012;50:1946"‘50.
Vankampen EJ, Ziglstra WJ. Colorimetric determination of hemoglobin. Clin Chem Acta 1961;6:5388.
Heyman B, Holmquist G, Borwell P, Heyman U. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for measuring anti"‘sheep erythrocyte antibodies. J Immunol Methods 1984;68:193"‘204.
Imaizumi M, Breitman TR. A combination of T cell"‘derived lymphokine differentiation"‘inducing activity and a physiologic concentration of retinoic acid induces HL"‘60 to differentiate to cells with functional chemotactic peptides receptors. Blood 1986;67:1273"‘80.
Datta BK, Mishra A, Singh A, Sar TK, Sarkar S, Bhtacharya A, et al. Chronic arsenicosis in cattle with special reference to its metabolism in arsenic endemic village of Nadia district West Bengal India. Sci Total Environ 2010;409:284"‘8.
Flora SJ, Bhadauria S, Kannan GM, Singh N. Arsenic induced oxidative stress and the role of antioxidant supplementation during chelation: A review. J Environ Biol 2007;28(Suppl 2):333"‘47.
Breton CV, Houseman EA, Kile ML, Quamruzzaman Q, Rahman M, Mahiuddin G, et al. Gender"‘specific protective effect of hemoglobin on arsenic"‘induced skin lesions. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006;15:902"‘7.
Rousselot P, Larghero J, Labaume S, Poupon J, Chopin M, Dosquet C, et al. Arsenic trioxide is effective in the treatment of multiple myeloma in SCID mice. Eur J Haematol 2004;72:166"‘71.
Nain S, Smits JE. Pathological, immunological and biochemical markers of subchronic arsenic toxicity in rats. Environ Toxicol 2012;27:244"‘54.
Datta SD, Saha DR, Ghosh D, Majumdar T, Bhattacharya S, Mazumder S. Sub"‘lethal concentration of arsenic interferes with the proliferation of hepatocytes and induces in vivo apoptosis in Clarias batrachus L. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2007;145:339"‘49.
Walker AM, Stevens JJ, Ndebele K, Tchounwou PB. Arsenic trioxide modulates DNA synthesis and apoptosis in lung carcinoma cells.Int J Environ Res Public Health 2010;7:1996"‘2007.
Yedjou C, Tchounwou P, Jenkins J, McMurray R. Basic mechanisms of arsenic trioxide (ATO) induced apoptosis in human leukemia (HL"‘60) cells. J Hematol Oncol 2010;3:28.
Balakkumar BS, Ramanathan K, Kumaresan S, Suresh R. DNA damage by sodium arsenite in experimental rats: Ameliorative effects of antioxidant vitamins C and E. Indian J Sci Technol 2010;3:322"‘7.
Shen ZY, Shen J, Chen MH, Wu XY, Wu MH, Zeng Y. The inhibition of growth and angiogenesis in heterotransplanted esophageal carcinoma via intratumoral injection of arsenic trioxide. Oncol Rep 2003;10:1869"‘74.