Cadmium Level in Pregnancy, Influence on Neonatal Birth Weight and Possible Amelioration by Some Essential Trace Elements

Authors

Keywords:

Birth weight, cadmium, selenium, zinc

Abstract

Cadmium (Cd) is currently of great concern in rapidly industrializing countries"‘India, China. Their products consumed especially due to increase demand in many developing countries like Nigeria can result in adverse effects. Cd is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and toxicant and humans are continually exposed to the toxic effects of Cd primarily through food as well as from environmental pollution through industrial activities. Maternal exposure to Cd has been associated with the delivery of low"‘birth weight babies and an increase incidence of spontaneous abortion. Cd a toxic metal can displace zinc (Zn) an essential element necessary for normal fetal development and growth. With this consideration, 160 subjects comprising of 125 pregnant and 35 non"‘pregnant subjects as controls were recruited for this study. The pregnant subjects were classified according to the three trimesters of pregnancy as followed; 35, 35, and 55 from the first to the third trimesters respectively. The third trimester subjects were followed"‘up until after delivery where neonatal parameters (birth weight, head circumference, and length) of babies were measured. 32 (58%) of the women delivered babies with normal birth weight, 19 women (35%) delivered babies with low"‘birth weight while four women (7%) delivered babies with high"‘ birth weight. Subject who delivered low"‘birth weight babies had significantly higher Cd concentration and lower Zn concentration and body mass index when compared with those with normal weight babies. These results suggest that Cd indeed has some toxic effects on neonatal birth weight.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Bhargava M, Iyer PU, Kumar R, Ramji S, Kapani V, Bhargava SK. Relationship of maternal serum ferritin with foetal serum ferritin, birth weight and gestation. J Trop Pediatr 1991;37:149"‘52.

Barker DJ, Hales CN, Fall CH, Osmond C, Phipps K, Clark PM.Type 2 (non"‘insulin"‘dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia (syndrome X): Relation to reduced fetal growth. Diabetologia 1993;36:62"‘7.

Berghella V. Prevention of recurrent fetal growth restriction.Obstet Gynecol 2007;110:904"‘12.

Prentice AM. Variation in maternal dietary intake, birth weight and breast milk output in the Gambia. In: Aebi H, Whitehead RG, editors. Maternal Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation.1991. p. 167"‘83.

Hogervorst J, Plusquin M, Vangronsveld J, Nawrot T, Cuypers A, Van Hecke E, et al. House dust as possible route of environmental exposure to cadmium and lead in the adult general population. Environ Res 2007;103:30"‘7.

ATSDR. Agency for toxic substances and disease regisitry.Toxicological Profile for Cadmium. Ga, US: Department of Health and human services; 1999.

Simmer PP, Khushlani K, Veerwal PC, Gupta RC. Maternal hypozincinaemia and low birth weight infants. Clinical Hem 1987;33:1950.

Garg HK, Singhal KC, Arshad Z. A study of the effect of oral zinc supplementation during pregnancy on pregnancy outcome.Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1993;37:276"‘84.

Goldenberg RL, Tamura T, Neggers Y. The effect of zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcome. JAMA 1995;I274:463"‘8.

Nieboer E, Richaeddson DH. The replacement of the non"‘descriptive term "heavy metals” by a biologically and chemically significant classification of metal ions. Environmental Pollution Series B 1980;1:3"‘26.

Sorkun HC, Bir F, Akbulut M, Divrikli U, Erken G, Demirhan H, et al. Toxicology 2007;238:15"‘22.12. Peraza MA, Fierro FA, Barber DS, Casarez E, Rael LT. Effects of micronutrients on metal toxicity. Environ Health Perspect 1998;106:203"‘16.

Berg JM. Zinc fingers and other metal"‘binding domains.Elements for interactions between macromolecules. J Biol Chem 1990;265:6513"‘6.

Milman N, Ibsen KK, Christensen JM. Serum ferritin and iron status in mothers and newborn infants. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1987;66:205"‘11.

Beard JL. Iron biology in immune function, muscle metabolism and neuronal functioning. J Nutr 2001;131:568"‘80.

Silverman J, Katayama S, Zelenakas K, Lauber J, Musser TK, Reddy M, et al. Effect of retinoids on the induction of colon cancer in F344 rats by N"‘methyl"‘N"‘nitrosourea or by 1,2"‘dimethylhydrazine. Carcinogenesis 1981;2:1167"‘72.

Bremner I. Cadmium toxicity. Nutritional influences and the role of metallothionein. World Rev Nutr Diet 1978;32:165"‘97.

Krachler M, Rossipal E, Micetic"‘Turk D. Trace element transfer from the mother to the newborn – Investigations on triplets of colostrum, maternal and umbilical cord sera. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;53:486"‘94.

Fernandez FJ, Kahn L. Graphite atomic absorption spectrophotometry for metals. Atomic Absorption, News letter 1971;10:65.

Henry RJ, Cannon DC, Winkelman JW. Clinical Chemistry: Principles and Techniques, 2nd ed. New York: Harper and Row Publishers; 1974.

Doumas BT, Watson WA, Biggs HG. Albumin standards and the measurement of serum albumin with bromcresol green. Clin Chim Acta 1971;31:87"‘96.

Shiverick KT, Salafia C. Cigarette smoking and pregnancy I: Ovarian, uterine and placental effects. Placenta 1999;20:265"‘72.

Nishijo M, Nakagawa H, Honda R, Tanebe K, Saito S, Teranishi H, et al. Effects of maternal exposure to cadmium on pregnancy outcome and breast milk. Occup Environ Med 2002;59:394"‘6.

Olatunbosun DA, Adadevoh BK, Adeniyi FA. Serum copper in normal pregnancy in Nigerians. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 1974;81:475"‘8.

Mohammadzade A, Farhat AS, Valaee L, Khadem N, Khajedaluee M, Parizadeh SM. Maternal serum selenium and low birth weight neonates. J Chin Clin Med 2009;2:103"‘7.

Hambidge KM, Krebs NF, Jacobs MA, Favier A, Guyette L, Ikle DN. Zinc nutritional status during pregnancy: A longitudinal study. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;37:429"‘42.

Published

2018-08-09

How to Cite

Ikeh"‘Tawari, E. P., Anetor, J. I., & Charles"‘Davies, M. A. (2018). Cadmium Level in Pregnancy, Influence on Neonatal Birth Weight and Possible Amelioration by Some Essential Trace Elements. Toxicology International, 20(1), 108–112. Retrieved from https://www.informaticsjournals.com/index.php/toxi/article/view/21716

Issue

Section

Original Research