Acute Oral Toxicity and Histopathological Study of Combination of Endosulfan and Cypermethrin in Wistar Rats

Jump To References Section


  • ,IN
  • ,IN
  • ,IN
  • ,IN
  • ,IN


Behavioral, cypermethrin, endosulfan, histopathological studies, LD50, rat


Background: Endosulfan, a neurotoxic organochlorine insecticide and cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial, and agricultural situations. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out to investigate the acute oral toxicity, behavioral and histopathological changes of combination of endosulfan and cypermethrin in albino rats. According to Miller and Tainter analysis method, at 48 h, LD50 value of combination of endosulfan and cypermethrin (ratio 1:1) in rats was found to be 691.83 mg/kg bw by oral gavage. Results: When combination of both these pesticides was administered orally at concentration of 103.72 mg/kg bw, 172.95 mg/kg bw and 207.50 mg/kg bw, respectively, as a single dose, no significant changes in behavior of rats was observed, neither in dosed nor in control group of rats. Combination of endosulfan"‘ and cypermethrin"‘treated rats showed mild histopathological changes in liver and kidney in group IV (207.50 mg/kg BW) as compared to the control. However, no significant changes were observed in brain and small intestine at either dose of combination of endosulfan and cypermethrin with respect to control. Conclusion: Thus, the present study, first of its kind in India, demonstrated the oral toxicity, behavioral, and histo"‘architectual alterations after induction of combination of endosulfan and cypermethrin at acute doses in Wistar rats.


Download data is not yet available.



How to Cite

Raj, J., ., M., Ray, R., Dogra, T. D., & Raina, A. (2018). Acute Oral Toxicity and Histopathological Study of Combination of Endosulfan and Cypermethrin in Wistar Rats. Toxicology International, 20(1), 61–67. Retrieved from



Original Research
Received 2018-08-09
Accepted 2018-08-09
Published 2018-08-09



Sparling DW, Fellers GM, McConnell LS. Pesticides and amphibian population declines in California, USA Environ Toxicol Chem 2001;20:1581"‘95.

Manske DD, Jhonson RD. Pesticide and Other chemical residues in total diet samples (X). Pestic Monit J 1977;10:134"‘48.

Nolan MP, Roberson EL. Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publication, Co.; 1979. p. 1107"‘11.

Ballantyne B, Marrs TC, Turner P. "Fundamentals of Toxicology”.In: General and Applied Toxicology. Ballantyne B, Marrs TC, Turner, editors. Avon: Macmillan Press Ltd., The Bath Press; 1995. p. 3"‘38.

World Health Organization. Environmental Health Criteria.Cypermethrin. Vol. 82. Geneva: United Nations Environmental Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organisation. 1989.

Jayakumar R, Nagarjuna A, Deuraju T, Jayantha R. Alteration of haematological Profiles due to Cypermethrin Toxicosis in Rana hexadactyla. J Indian Soc Toxicol 2008;4:973"‘3558.

Giray B, Gurbay A, Hincal F. Cypermethrin induced oxidative stress in rat brain and liver is prevented by vitamin E or allopurinol. Toxicol Lett 2001;118:139"‘46.

Bhunya SP, Pati PC. Effect of Deltamethrin, a synthetic Pyrethroid on the induction of chromosome aberrations, micronuclei and sperm abnormalities in mice. 1990;5:229"‘32.

Chattopadhyay SB. Principles and Procedures of Plant Protection.New Delhi, India: Oxford and IBH publishing Co. Pvt Ltd.; 1993.p. 85"‘6.

World Health Organization, Environmental Health Criteria 40, 1984.

Ghadiri H, Rose CW, Connel DW. Controlled environment study of the degradation of endosulfan in soils. In: Constable GA, Forrester NW, editors. Challenging the future. Proceeding of the World Cotton Research Conference "‘1, Brisbane, Australia, February14"‘17, 1994, CSIRO Melbourne, Australia 1995; 583"‘8.

Briz V, Molina"‘Molina JM, Sánchez"‘Redondo S, Fernández MF, Grimalt JO, Olea N, et al. Differential estrogenic effects of the persistent Organochlorine pesticides dieldrin, endosulfan and lindane in primary neuronal cultures; Toxicol Sci 2011;120:413"‘27.

Ray DE. Pesticides derived from plants and organisms. In Handbook of Pesticides Toxicology. Hayes WJ, Laws ER Jr, editors.New York, NY: Academic Press; 1991. p. 2"‘3.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 199: Cypermethrin. Office of Pesticide and Toxic Substances, Washington, DC.1989. 2"‘3.

IPCS. The WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by hazards and guidelines to Classification 1998"‘1999. WHO/ PCS/98.21 Rev. 1. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 1998b.

Miller LC, Tainter ML. Estimation of the LD50 and its error by means of logarithmic"‘probit graph paper. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1944;57:261"‘9.

Reeta KH, Mehla J, Gupta YK. Curcumin ameliorates cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage in phenobarbitone and carbamazepine administered rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2010;644:106"‘12.

Pahuja M, Mehla J, Reeta KH, Joshi S, Gupta YK. Root extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum ameliorates seizures, seizure"‘induced oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in experimental animals. Epilep Res 2012;98:157"‘65.

Reeta KH, Mehla J, Gupta YK. Curcumin is protective against phenytoin induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in rats. Brain Res 2009;1301:52"‘60.

Lilli RD. Histopathologic Technique and Practical Biochemistry.London: McGraw Hill Book Company; 1965.

Nagarjuna A, Doss PJ. Acute oral Toxicity and Histopathological studies of Cypermethrin in rats. Indian J Anim Res 2009;43:235"‘40.

Righi DA, Palmermo"‘Neto J. Behavioral effects of type II pyrethroid cyhalothrin in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2003;191:76"‘167.

Stevens JT, Breckenridge CB. "Crop Protection Chemicals”. In: Principles and Methods of Toxicology. 4th ed. In: Hayes AW, editor.Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis; 2001. p. 565"‘648.

Pope CN. Organophosphorus Pesticides: Do they all have the same mechanism of toxicity? J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 1999;2:161"‘81.

Rajesh E, Pilo B. Single dose neurotoxicity screening studies of insecticide combination (Cypermethrin and Profenofos) in Wistar rats. Toxicol Int 2009;16:97"‘102.

Manna S, Bhattacharya D, Basak DK, Mandal TK. Single oral dose toxicity study of α"‘Cypermethrin in rats. J Pharmacol 2004;36:25"‘8.

Johnson LL, Stehr CM, Olson OP, Myers MS, Pierce SM, Wigren CA, et al. Chemical contaminants and hepatic lesions in winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) from the Northeast Coast of the United States. Environ Sci Technol 1993;27:2759"‘71.

Farrag AR, Shalby SE. Comparative histopathological and histochemical studies on igr, lufenuron and profenofos insecticide albino rats. J Applied Sci Res 2007;3:377"‘86.

Afshar S, Farshid AA, Heidari R, Ilkhanipour M. Histopathological changes in the liver and kidney tissues of Wistar albino rat exposed to fenitrothion. Toxicol Ind Health 2008;24:581"‘6.

Saadi L, Lebaili N, Benyoussi M. Exploration of cytotoxic effect of malathion on some rat organs structure. Commun Agric Applied Biol Sci 2008;73:875"‘81.

Attia AA, Nasr HM. Dimethoate"‘induced changes in biochemicalparameters of experimental rat serum and its neutralization by black seed (Nigella sativa L.) oil. Slovak J Anim Sci 2009;42:87"‘94.

Tos"‘Luty S, Obuchowska"‘Przebirowska D, Latuszynska J, Tokarska"‘Rodak M, Haratym"‘Maj A. Dermal and oral toxicity of Malathion in rats. Ann Agric Environ Med 2003;10:101"‘6.

Grewal KK, Sandhu GS, Kaur RR, Brar RS, Sandhu HS. Toxic impact of cypermethrin on behavior and histology of certain tissues of albino rats. Toxicol Int 2010;17:94"‘8.

Muthuviveganandavel V, Muthuraman P, Muthu S, Srikumar K.A study of low dose cypermethrin induced histopathology, lipid peroxidation and marker enzyme changes in male rat. Pestic Biochem Physiol 2008;91:12"‘6.

Yavasoglu A, Sayim F, Uyamkgil Y, Turgut M, Yavasoglu NU. The pyrethroid cypermethrin induced biochemical and histological alterations in rat liver. J Health Sci 2006;52:774"‘80.

Luty S, Latuszynska J, Halliop J, Tochman A, Obu Chowska D, Prazylepa E, et al. Toxicity of dermally applied alpha cypermethrin in rats. Ann Agric Environ Med 1998;5:109"‘15.

Yousef MI, Demerdash FM, Kamel KI, Al"‘Salhen KS. Changes in some hematological and biochemical indices of rabbits induced by isoflavones and cypermethrin. Toxicology 2003;189:223"‘4.

Adeniran OY, Fafunso MA, Adeyemi O, Lawal AO, Ologundudu A, Omonkhua AA. Biochemical effects of pesticides on serum and urinological system of rats. J Applied Sci 2006;6:668"‘72.

Kerem M, Bedirli N, Gurbuz N, Ekinci O, Bedirli A. Effects of acute fenthion toxicity on liver and kidney function and histology in rats. Turk J Med Sci 2007;37:281"‘8.

Timbrell AJ. Principles of Biochemical Toxicology. London: Taylor and Francis; 1991.

Khan A, Faridi HA, Ali M, Khan MZ, Siddique M, Hussain I, et al.Effects of cypermethrin on some clinico"‘ hemato"‘ biochemical and pathological parameters in male dwarf goats (Capra hircus).Exp Toxicol Pathol 2009;61:151"‘60.

Most read articles by the same author(s)