Determination of Median Lethal Dose of Combination of Endosulfan and Cypermethrin in Wistar Rat



Cypermethrin, endosulfan, LD50, no observed adverse effect level, organochlorine, pyrethroid


The present study was designed to determine the lethal dose 50 (LD50) of combination of cypermethrin, a pyrethroid, and endosulfan, an organochlorine compound in Wistar rats. LD50 is the amount (dose) of a chemical, calculated as per the concentration of chemicals that produces death in 50% of a population of test animals to which it is administered by any of a variety of methods. A single oral dose of combination of cypermethrin and endosulfan were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in a ratio of 1:1 and administered orally at the concentration of 165 mg/kg body weight (b.w), 330 mg/kg b.w, 660 mg/kg b.w, and 1320 mg/kg b.w to experimental animals. LD50 was calculated according to the method described by Miller and Tainter (1994) and was observed as 691.83 mg/kg b.w for this combination. Single dose of test article at 165 mg/kg b.w did not reveal any toxic signs or behavioral alterations, hence considered as No observed Adverse Effect level (NOAEL).


Download data is not yet available.


Anwar WA. Biomarkers of human exposure to pesticide. Environ Health Perspect 1997;105:801"‘6.

Ahmad L, Khan A, Khan MZ, Hussain I. Cypermethrin induced anemia in male rabbits. Pakistan Vet J 2009;29:191.

Environmental Information System"‘National Institute of Occupational Heal. News Letter 2007;2.

Grewal KK, Sandhu GS, Kaur RR, Brar RS, Sandhu HS. Toxic impact of cypermethrin on behavior and histology of certain tissues of albino rats. Toxicol Int 2010;17:94"‘8.

Miller LC, Tainter ML. Estimation of LD50 and its error by means of log"‘probit graph paper. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1944;57:261.

Bliss CI. The method of probits. Science 1934;79:38"‘9.

Litchfield JT Jr, Wilcoxon F. A simplified method of evaluating dose"‘effect experiments. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1949;96:99"‘113.

Finney DJ. Probit Analysis. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1971.

Weil CS. Tables for convenient calculation of median effective dose (LD 50 or ED 50) and instructions in their use. Biometrics 1952;8:249.

Thompson WR. Use of moving averages and interpolation to estimate median effective 4 dose. Bacteriol Rev 1947;11:115.

Report of National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (2009). Available from: health/topics/agents//pesticide/index.cfm. [Last accessed on 24 oct 2011]

United States Environmental Protection Agency. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisoning (2009). Available from: handbook.htm. [Last accessed on 24 oct 2011]

World Health Organization. Issue Brief Series: Pesticides. (2009).Available from: http// pesticides.pdf. [Last accessed on 24 oct 2011]

Sekar BH, Uma Devi, Ch Susma, Venkateswara RJ, VijayaKumar TM, Thirumurugan G. Effect of polytrin C (combination pesticide) on the ach ease inhibition in plasma and brain of wistar rats. Am J Biochem Mol Biol 2011;1:101.

Nolan MP, Roberson EL. Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publication, Co.; 1979.p. 1107.

Ray DE. Pesticides derived from plants and organisms. In: Hayes WJ, Laws ER Jr, editors. Handbook of Pesticides Toxicology.New York: Academic Press; 1991. p. 2"‘3.

Nagarjuna A, Doss JP. Acute oral toxicity and histopathological studies of cypermethrin in rats. Indian J Anim Res 2009;43:235.

U b o h F E , A s u q u o E N, E t e n g MU, A k p a ny u n g E O. Endosulfan"‘induces renal toxicity independent of the route of exposure in rats. Am J Biochem Mol Biol 2011;1:359.

International Programme on Chemical Safety. The WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazards and Guidelines to Classification 1998"‘1999. (WHO/PCS/98.21 Rev. 1 World Health Organisation, Geneva) 1998b.

Ghosh MN. Toxicity studies. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology. Calcutta: Scientific Book Agency; 1984. p. 153.

Turner R. Quantal response. The determination of ED 50.Screening Methods in Pharmacology New York: Academic Press; 1965. p. 61.

Randhawa MA. Calculation of LD50 values from the method of Miller and Tainter, 1944. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2009;21:184"‘5.

Finney DJ. Probit Analysis. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1952.

Ghosh MN. Statistical Analysis, Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology. 2nd ed. Calcutta: Scientific Book Agency; 1984.p. 187.

Shafiq"‘ur"‘Rehman. Endosulfan toxicity and its reduction by selenium: A behavioral, hematological and peroxidative stress evaluation. Internet J Toxicol 2006;3.

Davis RP, Garthwaite DG, Thomas MR. Pesticide Usage Survey Report 85, Arable Farm Crops in England and Wales 1990.London: MAFE; 1991.

Davis RR, Thomas MR, Garthwaite DG, Bowen HM. Pesticide Usage Survey Report 108, Arable Farm Crops in Great Britain 1992. London: MAFE; 1993.

Manna S, Bhattacharya D, Basak DK, Mandal TK. Single oral dose toxicity study of α"‘cypermethrin in rats. J Pharmacol 2004;36:25.

Smith AG. Chlorinated hydrocarbons insecticide. In: Hayes WJ Jr, Laws ER Jr, editors. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. New York: Academic Press Inc.; 1991. p. 63.

Thompson HM. Interactions between pesticides: A review of reported effects and their implications for wildlife risk assessment. Ecotoxicology 1996;5:59.



How to Cite

Raj, J., Chandra, M., Dogra, T. D., Pahuja, M., & Raina, A. (2018). Determination of Median Lethal Dose of Combination of Endosulfan and Cypermethrin in Wistar Rat. Toxicology International, 20(1), 1–5. Retrieved from



Original Research