Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Gandarusa (Gendarussa vulgaris Nees) and Soursoup (Annona muricata L) Extracts in LPS Stimulated-Macrophage Cell (RAW264.7)


  • University of Pancasila, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Aretha Medika Utama, Biomoleculer and Biomedical Research Center, Bandung, Indonesia
  • Aretha Medika Utama, Biomoleculer and Biomedical Research Center, Bandung, West java, Indonesia
  • Maranatha Christian University, Medical Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Bandung, Indonesia


Inflammation is one of the important biological responses to injury. Anti-inflammatory is therefore proposed to treat both acute and chronic inflammation. Chemical compounds of various plants are widely used in treatment of inflammation. Objective: This study aims to evaluate anti-inflammatory potential of G. vulgaris extract (GVE) and A. muricata extract (AME) on LPS-stimulated murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7). Cell viability assay to evaluate nontoxic concentration in cell line was performed with MTS assay. Parameters to determine anti-inflammatory activity between treatment group and non treated cells, were IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 which was measured with Elisa, and NO level which was measured with nitrate/nitrite colorimetric assay. Both GVE and AME of 50 and 10 μg/mL showed high viability (>90%) and it was not significantly different compared to control, makes it suitable for treatment. GVE and AME of 50 μg/mL resulted low TNF-α level in RAW264.7(313.16pg/mL and 264.69 pg/mL respectively), as well as IL-1β level (903.53 pg/mL and 905.00 pg/mL respectively) and IL-6 (175.88 pg/mL and 219.13 pg/mL respectively). Whereas, GVE and AME of 75 μg/mL showed lower NO level (9.76 μM and 9.79 μM respectively) compared to untreated cells. This research revealed that GVE and AME possess the anti-inflammatory potential indicated by inhibition of inflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and NO.


Annona muricata L, Anti-iflammtory, Gendarussa vulgaris Nees, RAW264.7 Cell Line

Subject Discipline

Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Full Text:


Fang SC. Anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic compounds isolated from the fruits of Artocarpus heterophyllus. J Agric Food Chem. 2008; 56:4463–8.

Jung CH. Eleutherococcus senticosus extract attenuates LPS-induced iNOS expression through the inhibition of Akt and JNK pathways in murine macrophage. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007; 113:183–7.

Kim AR. Flavonoids differentially modulate nitric oxide production pathways in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 cells. Arch Pharmacal Res. 2005; 28:297–304.

Kim KM. Methanol extract of Cordyceps pruinosa inhibits in vitro and in vivo inflammatory mediators by surpressing NF-kB activation. Toxicol Applied Pharmacol. 2003; 190:1–8.

Boots AW. In vitro and ex vivo anti-inflammatory activity of quercetin in healthy volunteers. Nutrition. 2008; 24:703–10.

Rusmana D, Elizabeth M, Widowati W, Fauziah N, Maesaroh M. Inhibition of inflammatory agent production by ethanol extract and eugenol of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) flower bud (clove) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Res J Med Plant. 2015; 9(6):264–74.

Dewi K, Widyarto B, Erawijantari PP, Widowati W. In vitro study of Myristica fragrans seed (Nutmeg) ethanolic extract and quercetin compound as anti-inflammatory agent. Int J Res Med Sci. 2015; 3(9):2303–10.

Mehta RG, Murillo G, Naithani R, Peng X. Cancer chemoprevention by natural products: How far have we come? Pharm Res. 2010; 27(6):950–61.

Agnihotri SS. An overview on anti-inflammatory properties and chemo-profiles of plants used in traditional medicine. Indian J Nat. 2010; 1:150–67.

Jothimanivannan C, Kumar RS, Subramanian N. AntiInflammatory and analgesic activities of ethanol extract of aerial parts of Justicia gandarussa Burm. J Int Pharmacol. 2010; 6(3):273-83.

Kim HP, Son KH, Chang HW, Kang SS. Critical review anti-inflammatory plant flavonoids and cellular action mechanisms. J Pharmacol Sci. 2004;96:229–45.

Bhaskar V, Balakrishnan N. Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of Pergularia daemia and Carissa carandas. J Pharm Sci. 2009; 17(3):168–74.

Kossouoh C. Essential oil chemical composition of Annona muricata L. leaves from Benin. J Essent Oil Res. 2007; 307–9.

Widowati W, Mozef T, Risdian C, Yelliantty Y. Anticancer and free radical scavenging potency of Catharanthus roseus, Dendrophthoe petandra, Piper betle, and Curcuma mangga extracts in breast cancer cell lines. Oxid Antioxid Med Sci 2013b; 2(2):137-42.

Widowati W, Wijaya L, Wargasetia TL, Bachtiar I, Yelliantty Y, Laksmitawati DR. Antioxidant, anticancer and apoptosis-inducing effects of Piper extracts in HeLa cells. J Exp Integr Med. 2013b; 3:225–30.

Mahajna SM. In vitro evaluations of cytotoxicity and antiinflammatory effects of Peganum harmala seed extracts in THP-1-derived macrophages. Eur J Med Plants. 2014; 5:165–75.

Gabay C. Interleukin-6 and chronic inflammation. BioMed. 2006; 8 (Suppl 2):S3.

Kang CH. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-a expression by aqueous extract of orixa japonica in RAW264.7 cells via supression of NFkB activity. Trop J Pharmaceut Res. 2011; 10:161–8.

Jothy SL. Acute oral toxicity of methanolic seed extract of Cassia fistula in mice. Molecules. 2011; 16:5268–82.

Lalitha PK. Acute toxicity study of extracts of Eichhornia crassipes (MART.) solms. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2012; 5:59–61.

Rajalakshmi AA. Toxicity analysis of different medicinal plant extracts in Swiss Albino mice. BioMed Res. 2014; 1:1–6.

Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Shiv P. Cellular and molecular immunology. 8th ed. Canada: Elsevier Saunders; 2012. p. 59.

Rapsinski GJ, Wynosky-Dolfi MA, Oppong GO, Tursi SA, Wilson RP, Brodsky IE et al. Toll-like receptor 2 and NLRP3 cooperate to recognize a functional bacterialamyloid, curli. Infect Immun. 2015; 83:693–701.

Tak PP. NF-kB: a key role in inflammatory disease. J Clin Invest. 2001; 170:7–11.

De Cassia da Silveira e Sa RL. A review on antiinflammatory activity of phenylpropanoids found in essential oils. Molecules. 2014; 19:1459–80.

Dinarello, CA. Anti-inflammatory agents; present and future. Cell. 2010; 140(6):935-50.27. Damte, DM. Anti-inflammatory activity of dichloromethane extract of Auricularia-judae in RAW264.7 cells. Toxicol. Res. 2011; 27:11-14.

Leontowicz HM. Bioactive properties of snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw) and Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) and their influence on plasma lipid profile and antioxidant activity in rats fed cholesterol. Eur Food Res Technol. 2006; 223:697–703.

Foong CP, Hamid RA. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of Annona muricata leaves. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 2012; 22(6):1301–7.

Tapas AR. Flavonoids as nutraceuticals: A review. Trop J Pharm Res. 2008; 7:1089–99.

Tunon MJ. Potential of flavonoids as anti-inflammatory agents: modulation of pro-inflammatory gene expressions and signal transduction pathways. Curr Drug Metab. 2009; 10:256–71.

Serafini M. Flavonoids as anti-inflammatory agents. P nutr Soc. 2010; 69:273–8.


  • There are currently no refbacks.