Composite Flour of Babool (Acacia Nilotica) and Banana (Musa Sp.): Nutritional and Antioxidant Potential

Jump To References Section


  • Department of Foods and Nutrition, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana ,IN
  • Department of Foods and Nutrition, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana ,IN
  • Department of Foods and Nutrition, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana ,IN
  • Department of Foods and Nutrition, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana ,IN
  • Centre of Food Science and Technology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana ,IN



Acacia nilotica, functional properties, oil absorption capacity, sedimentation, microminerals
Foods & Nutrition


Acacia nilotica is a potential source of protein, fibre and natural antioxidants. Also, the protein fractions from acacia seeds possess high functional properties that could be advantageous in food formulation. However, acacia pods possess a bitterness that hinders its utilization for value addition. We have developed composite flours in combination with raw banana flour. Two types of composite flours were developed substituting 30 and 50 per cent of banana flour with acacia flour. Acacia flour exhibited significantly higher (p≤0.05) water and oil absorption capacity, swelling power as well as sedimentation value compared to banana flour. Also, it was a significantly richer (p≤0.05) source of protein (12.95%), crude fibre (12.66 %) as well as DPPH activity (59.60 %). The two composite flours, respectively exhibited 0.86 and 1.35 g/g water absorption capacity; 0.44 and 0.76 g/g oil absorption capacity; 4.14 and 4.06 g/g swelling power; 14.22 and 15.36 ml/g sedimentation value. The crude protein content in respective composite flours was 9.36 and 11.86 % with 4.96 and 5.50 % crude fibre, 40.60 and 40.69 % dietary fibre, 27.05 and 34.06 % DPPH activity. Both composite flours were good source of available micro-minerals also.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...



How to Cite

Malik, P., Chahal Sindhu, S., Sangwan, V., Kumari, N., & Kumari, A. (2021). Composite Flour of Babool (<i>Acacia Nilotica</i>) and Banana (<i>Musa Sp.</i>): Nutritional and Antioxidant Potential. The Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics, 58(3), 378–389.



Original Articles
Received 2021-03-26
Accepted 2021-06-21
Published 2021-09-07



Majumder, D. P., Debnath, R. and Maiti, D. Understanding the complicated relationship between antioxidants and carcinogenesis. J. Biochem. Molec. Toxicol., 2021, 35, e22643. DOI:

Sadiq, M.B., Tharaphan, P., Chotivanich, K., Tarning, J. and Anal, A.K. In vitro antioxidant and anti-malarial activities of leaves, pods and bark extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Del. BMC Complemen. Alternat. Med., 2017, 17, 1-8. DOI:

Revathi, S., Govindarajan, R.K., Rameshkumar, N., Hakkim, F.L., Mohammed, A.B., Krishnan, M. And Kayalvizhi, N. Anti-cancer, anti-microbial and anti-oxidant properties of Acacia nilotica and their chemical profiling. Biocatal. Agricul. Biotechnol., 2017, 11, 322-329. DOI:

Axford, D.W.E., McDermott, E.E. and Redman, D.G. Note on the sodium dodecyl sulfate test of bread making quality: Comparison with Pelshenke and Zeleny tests. Cereal Chem., 1979, 56, 582-584.

AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th Ed. Association of Official Analytical chemists. Arlyngton, Virginia, USA, 2000.

Cerning, J. and Guilbot,A. Changes in carbohydrate composition during maturation of wheat and barley kernel. Cereal Chem., 1973, 50, 220-232.

Yemm, E.W. and Wills, A.J. The estimation of carbohydrates in plant extracts by anthrone. J. Biochem., 1954, 57, 508 DOI:

Somogyi, M. A new reagent for the determination of sugar. J. Biolog. Chem., 1945, 160, 61-68. DOI:

Clegg, K.M. The application of anthrone reagent to the estimation of starches in cereals. J. Agricul. Fd. Chem., 1956, 7, 40-44. DOI:

Chen, P.S., Toribara, T.T. and Warner, H. Micro determination of phosphorus. Analyt. Chem., 1956, 28, 1756-1758. DOI:

Furda, I. Simultaneous analysis of soluble and insoluble dietary fibre. In: The analysis of fibre in food. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1981, 163-172.

Haug, W. and Lantzsch, H.J. Sensitive method for the rapid determination of phytate in cereals and cereal products. J. Sci. Fd. Agri., 1983, 34, 1423-1426. DOI:

Serrano, J., Goñi, I. And Saura-Calixto, F. Food antioxidant capacity determined by chemical methods may underestimate the physiological antioxidant capacity. Fd. Res. Int., 2007, 40, 15-21. DOI:

Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E. and Berset, C.L.W.T. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Fd. Sci. Technol., 1995, 28, 25-30. DOI:

Rather, L.J. and Mohammad, F. Acacia nilotica (L.): A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. Sustain. Chem. Pharm., 2015, 2, 12-30. DOI:

Thakur, P.P., Pawar, V.S. and Shere, D.M. Material balance, proximate and functional analysis of green banana flour prepared by cabinet drying method. Fd. Sci. Res. J., 2016, 7, 190-194. DOI:10.15740/HAS/FSRJ/7.2/190-194. DOI:

Ndamitso, M.M., Mustapha, S., Etsuyankpa, M.B., Ajai, A.I. and Mathew, J.T. Evaluation of chemical composition of Acacia nilotica seeds. FUW Trds Sci. Technol. J., 2017, 2, 927-931.

Ganesan, K., Kumar, K.S. and Subba Rao, P.V. Salt- and pH-induced functional changes in protein concentrate of edible green seaweed Enteromorpha species. Fisher. Sci., 2012, 78, 169-176. DOI:

Moorthy, S.N. and Ramanujam, T. Variation in properties of starch in cassava varieties in relation to age of the crop. Starch Stärke, 1986, 38, 58-61. DOI:

Prajapati, R., Chandra, S., Samsher, Chauhan, N., Singh, G.R. and Kumar, S. Effect of incorporation of flours on the functional properties of composite flours. South Asian J. Fd. Technol. Environ., 2015, 1, 233-241. DOI:

Adiamo, O.Q., Netzel, M.E., Hoffman, L.C., Gidley, M.J. and Sultanbawa, Y. Nutritional, anti-nutritional, antioxidant, physicochemical and functional characterization of Australian Acacia seed: Effect of species and regions. J. Sci. Fd. Agricul., 2021, 19, 21-43. DOI:

Siddhuraju, P., Vijayakumari, K. and Janardhanan, K. Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of an underexploited legume, Acacia nilotica (L.) Del. Fd. Chem., 1996, 57, 385-391. DOI:

Menezes, E.W., Tadini, C.C., Tribess, T.B., Zuleta, A. et al. Chemical composition and nutritional value of unripe banana flour (Musa acuminata, var. Nanicí£o). Plant Fds. Human Nutr., 2011, 66, 231-237. DOI:

Cahyana, Y. and Restiani, R. Wheat flour substitution with retrograded banana flour to produce cookies possessing good physical characteristics and low glycemic index. KnELife Sci., 2017, 2017, 556-562. DOI: