A Comparison of Macronutrient Intake and Anthropometric Profile between Male and Female Type 2 Diabetics

Jump To References Section


  • Department of Nutrition, Fernandez Hospital Foundation, Bogulkunta, Hyderabad - 500 001, Telangana ,IN
  • Department of Nutrition, Fernandez Hospital Foundation, Bogulkunta, Hyderabad - 500 001, Telangana ,IN
  • Department of Nutrition, Fernandez Hospital Foundation, Bogulkunta, Hyderabad - 500 001, Telangana ,IN
  • Department of Endocrinology, Osmania Medical College and General Hospital, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh ,IN
  • Department of Endocrinology, Osmania Medical College and General Hospital, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh ,IN
  • Department of Nutrition, Fernandez Hospital Foundation, Bogulkunta, Hyderabad - 500 001, Telangana ,IN




Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 Diabetes, Body Composition, Waist Circumference, Waist-Hip Ratio, Obesity, Skeletal Muscle.


Medical nutrition therapy and weight management are vital for type 2 diabetes management. Obesity and truncal adiposity increase insulin resistance and predict progression and severity of diabetes. The objective was to identify macronutrient intake, assess body composition and associations between the two, among South Indians. A crosssectional observational study was conducted in the endocrinology OPD at a public hospital (n=88). Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hour recall, body composition using bioelectrical impedance, Waist Circumference (WC) and Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR) using standardized techniques. Mean calorie intake was 1956.52 ± 373.52 kcal and 1578.82 ± 256.64 kcal (p<0.001) in men and women respectively. Carbohydrate, protein and fat intakes were 59.55 ± 4.33, 11.44 ± 1.49 and 26.45 ± 4.67 % Total Energy (TE) in men and 56.12 ± 5.92, 10.54 ± 2.46 and 32.77 ± 5.2 4% TE in women. More women consumed inadequate protein, consumed > 30% TE from fat (p = 0.008) and were sedentary (p = 0.02). Per BMI, 40.9% were overweight and 34.1% obese. Majority were obese as per WC (87.5%) and WHR (93.2%). There were no significant differences between genders for fat and muscle mass. Of the total population, 3.4%, 34.1%, and 2.3% had normal total body fat, visceral fat and skeletal muscle mass respectively. Female diabetics are less likely to meet macronutrient and physical activity guidelines. Most exceed BMI have high body fat and truncal adiposity. Weight management, dietary intake and physical activity counselling may be a costeffective strategy in this population.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...



How to Cite

Kanneganti, A., Hussain, M., Sri, R., Sahay, R., Kudugunti, N., & Sashi, L. (2020). A Comparison of Macronutrient Intake and Anthropometric Profile between Male and Female Type 2 Diabetics. The Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics, 57(2), 164–177. https://doi.org/10.21048/ijnd.2020.57.2.24586



Original Articles
Received 2019-12-19
Accepted 2020-02-25
Published 2020-06-23



International Diabetes Federation (2019). Regions and members. [online] Idf.org. Available at:https://idf.org/our-network/regions-members/south-east-asia/members/94-india.html [Accessed 14 Dec. 2019].

Atre, S. The burden of diabetes in India. The Lancet Global Health, 2019, 7, e418. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30556-4

Mohan, V., Unnikrishnan, R., Shobana, S., Malavika, M., Anjana, R.M. and Sudha, V. Are excess carbohydrates the main link to diabetes and its complications in Asians? Ind. J. Med. Res., 2018, 148, 531. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1698_18

Colles, S. L., Singh, S., Kohli, C. and Mithal, A. Dietary beliefs and eating patterns influence metabolic health in type 2 diabetes: A clinic-based study in urban North India. Ind. J. Endocrinol. Metabol., 2013, 17, 1066. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/2230-8210.122626

Risérus, U., Willett, W.C. and Hu, F.B. Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes. Progress in Lipid Res., 2009, 48, 44-51. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plipres.2008.10.002

Arulmozhi, S. and Mahalakshmy, T. Self care and medication adherence among type 2 diabetics in Puducherry, Southern India: A hospital based study. J. Clini. Diagnos. Res., 2014, 8, UC01.

Srinath, K.M., Basavegowda, M. and Tharuni, N.S. Diabetic self care practices in rural Mysuru, Southern Karnataka, India - A need for Diabetes Self Management Educational program. Diabet. Metabol. Syndrome: Clini. Res. Rev., 2017, 11, 181-186. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2016.12.029

Gopichandran, V., Lyndon, S., Angel, M.K., Manayalil, B.P., Blessy, K.R., Alex, R.G., Kumaran, V. and Balraj, V. Diabetes self-care activities: a community-based survey in urban Southern India. Nat. Med. J. India, 2012, 25, 14.

Hemavathi Dasappa, S.P., Sirisha, M., Prasanna, S.R. and Naik, S. Prevalence of self-care practices and assessment of their sociodemographic risk factors among diabetes in the urban slums of Bengaluru. J. Family Med. Primary care, 2017, 6, 218. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/2249-4863.220037

Advika, T.S., Idiculla, J. and Kumari, S.J. Exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes: facilitators and barriers-A qualitative study. J. Family Med. Primary care, 2017, 6, 288. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/2249-4863.219998

Pardhan, S., Nakafero, G., Raman, R. and Sapkota, R. Barriers to diabetes awareness and self-help are influenced by people's demographics: perspectives of South Asians with type 2 diabetes. Ethnicity. Health, 2018, 26, 1-19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13557858.2018.1455809

Sattar, N. Gender aspects in type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiometabolic risk. Best Pract. Res. Clini. Endocrinol. Metabol., 2013, 27, 501-507. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beem.2013.05.006

Peters, S.A., Huxley, R.R. and Woodward, M. Sex differences in body anthropometry and composition in individuals with and without diabetes in the UK Biobank. BMJ open., 2016, 6, e010007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010007

Singla, R., Garg, A., Singla, S. and Gupta, Y. Temporal change in profile of association between diabetes, obesity and age of onset in Urban India: A brief report and review of literature. Ind. J. Endocrinol. Metabol., 2018, 22, 429. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/ijem.IJEM_601_17

Adhya, A.K., Pal, P., Mishra, S.N. and Acharya, S.K. Shubhransu Patrol. Int. J. Drug Dev. Res., 2014, 6, 0975-9344.

Pradeepa, R., Anjana, R.M., Joshi, S.R., Bhansali, A., Deepa, M., Joshi, P.P., Dhandania, V.K., Madhu, S.V., Vishnupriya Rao, P., Geetha, L., Subashini, R., Unnikrishnan, R., Shukla, D.K., Kaur, T., Mohan, V., Das, A.K. and the ICMR-INDIAB Collaborative Study Group. Prevalence of generalized and abdominal obesity in urban and rural India-the ICMR-INDIAB Study (Phase-I) [ICMR-INDIAB-3]. Ind. J. Med. Res., 2015, 142, 139. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-5916.164234

Martiniuk, A.L., Lee, C.M., Colagiuri, S. and Woodward, M. Higher-than-optimal body mass index and diabetes mortality in the Asia Pacific region. Diabet. Res. Clini. Pract., 2011, 94, 471-476. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2011.10.002

Prakash, K., Chandran, D.S., Khadgawat, R., Jaryal, A.K. and Deepak, K.K. Waist circumference rather than body mass index is better indicator of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus in North Indian population. Ind. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 2016, 60, 52-56.

Deepa, M., Farooq, S., Deepa, R., Manjula, D. and Mohan, V. Prevalence and significance of generalized and central body obesity in an urban Asian Indian population in Chennai, India (CURES: 47). Euro. J. Clini. Nutri., 2009, 63, 259. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602920

Katchunga, P.B., Bapolisi, A.M., M'Buyamba-Kabangu, J.R. and Hermans, M.P. Bioelectrical impedance outperforms waist circumference for predicting cardiometabolic risk in Congolese hypertensive subjects: A cross-sectional study. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 2015, 15, 17. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12872-015-0011-7

Panchu, P., Bahuleyan, B., Babu, R. and Vijayan, V. Age and sex variation in visceral adipose tissue. Int. J. Advanc. Med., 2019, 6, 101. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20190113

Schorr, M., Dichtel, L.E., Gerweck, A.V., Valera, R.D., Torriani, M., Miller, K.K. and Bredella, M. A. Sex differences in body composition and association with cardiometabolic risk. Biol. Sex Differenc., 2018, 9, 28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13293-018-0189-3

Abdelhafiz, A.H. and Sinclair, A.J. Diabetes, nutrition, and exercise. Clini. Geriat. Med., 2015, 31, 439-451. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cger.2015.04.011

Rush, E.C., Freitas, I. and Plank, L.D. Body size, body composition and fat distribution: Comparative analysis of European, Maori, Pacific Island and Asian Indian adults. Bri. J. Nutri., 2009, 102, 632-641. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114508207221

Anbalagan, V.P., Venkataraman, V., Pradeepa, R., Deepa, M., Anjana, R.M. and Mohan, V. The prevalence of pre-sarcopenia in Asian Indian individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. Diabet. Technol. Therapeutics, 2013, 15, 768-775. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/dia.2013.0068

Park, S.W., Goodpaster, B.H., Lee, J.S., Kuller, L.H., Boudreau, R., De Rekeneire, N.W., Harris, T.B., Kritchevsky, S., Tylavsky, F.A., Nevitt, M., Cho, Y.W. and Newman, A.B. Excessive loss of skeletal muscle mass in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabet. care, 2009, 32, 1993-1997. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2337/dc09-0264

Stevens, J., Katz, E.G. and Huxley, R.R. Associations between gender, age and waist circumference. Euro. J. Clini. Nutri., 2010, 64, 6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2009.101

Unni, U.S., Ramakrishnan, G., Raj, T., Kishore, R.P., Thomas, T., Vaz, M. and Kurpad, A.V. Muscle mass and functional correlates of insulin sensitivity in lean young Indian men. Euro. J. Clini. Nutri., 2009, 63, 1206. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2009.32

Oberbach, A., Bossenz, Y., Lehmann, S., Niebauer, J., Adams, V., Paschke, R., Schon, M.R., Blüher, M. and Punkt, K. Altered fiber distribution and fiber-specific glycolytic and oxidative enzyme activity in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabet. care, 2006, 29, 895-900. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.29.04.06.dc05-1854

Narasimhan, S., Nagarajan, L., Vaidya, R., Gunasekaran, G., Rajagopal, G., Parthasarathy, V., Unnikrishnan, R., Anjana, R.M., Mohan, V. and Sudha, V. Dietary fat intake and its association with risk of selected components of the metabolic syndrome among rural South Indians. Ind. J. Endocrinol. Metabol., 2016, 20, 47. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/2230-8210.172248

Gulati, S. and Misra, A. Abdominal obesity and type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians: Dietary strategies including edible oils, cooking practices and sugar intake. Euro. J. Clini. Nutri., 2017, 71, 850. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2017.92

Okamura, T., Miki, A., Hashimoto, Y., Kaji, A., Sakai, R., Osaka, T., Hamaguchi, M., Yamazaki, M. and Fukui, M. Shortage of energy intake rather than protein intake is associated with sarcopenia in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: A cross"sectional study of the KAMOGAWA-DM cohort. J. Diabet., 2019, 11, 477-483. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1753-0407.12874

Kim, H.N. and Song, S.W. Association between carbohydrate intake and body composition: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Nutri., 2019, 61, 187-193. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2018.11.011