Review on Ethnomedicinal uses of Memory Boosting Herb, Butterfly Pea, <i>Clitoria ternatea</i>
Keywords:Butterfly Pea, Clitoria ternatea, Herb, Memory, Neuropharmacology, Plant
AbstractClitoria ternatea (Family: Fabaceae) is one of the traditional medicinal plants used as "Shanka Pushpi” an Ayurvedic medicine used to boost or enhance neurological health. The plant contains alkaloid, flavonoid, taraxerol, taraxerone, triterpenoid and anthocyanin as active chemicals that bring about its biological effects. Its extracts possess a wide range of pharmacological activities including antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, anti-fungal, anti-helmintic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antipyretic activities, hypolipidemia, immunomodulatory, and wound healing. This review is an attempt to compile information on various ethno medicinal uses of memory boosting herb, butterfly pea, Clitoria ternatea. Conclusion: It has a wide spectrum of neuro pharmacological benefits such as nootropic, anti-depressant, anti-stress, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant activities.
Anand R, Gill KD, Mahdi AA. Therapeutics of Alzheimer's disease: past, present and future. Neuropharmacol. 2014;76:27–50.
Hebert LE, Weuve J, Scherr PA, Evans DA. Alzheimer disease in the United States (2010-2050) estimated using the 2010 Census. Neurol. 2013; 80(19):1778–83.
Charernboon T, Phanasathit M. Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease: A cross-sectional descriptive study in Thailand. J Med Assoc Thailand. 2014; 97(5):560–5.
Colovic MB, Krstic SZ, Lazarevic-Pasti TD, Bondzic AM, Vasic VM. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: Pharmacology and toxicology. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2013; 11(3):315–35.
Kumar A, Ekavali AS. A review on alzheimer's disease pathophysiology and its management: an update.Pharmacol Reports. 2015; 67(2):195–203.
Bhowmik D, Tiwari P, Tripathi KK, Sampath KP. Traditional Indian memory enhancer herbs and their medicinal importance. Ann Biol Res. 2010; 1(1):41–6.
Kumar H, More SV, Han SD, Choi JY, Choi DK. 2012.Promising therapeutics with natural bioactive compounds for improving learning and memory – A review of randomized trials. Molecules. 2012; 17(9):10503–39.
Jatwa V, Khirwadkar P, Dashora K. Indian traditional memory enhancing herbs and their medicinal benefits. Indian J Res Pharm Biotechnol. 2014; 2:1030–7.
Zingare ML, Zingare PL, Dubey AK, Ansari MS. Clitoria ternatea (Aparajita): A review of the antioxidant, antidiabetic and hepatoprotective potentials. Int J Pharm Biol Sci. 2013; 3:203–13.
Mukherjee PK, Kumar V, Kumar NS, Heinrich M. The Ayurvedic medicine Clitoria ternatea - From traditional use to scientific assessment. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;120(3):291–301.
Subramanian MS, Prathyusha P. Pharmaco-phytochemical characterization of Clitoria ternatea Linn. Int J PharmTech Res. 2011; 3:606–12.
Anand SP, Doss A, Nandagopalan V. Antibacterial studies on leaves of Clitoria ternatea linn. - A high potential medicinal plant. Int J App Biol Pharm Technol. 2011;2(3):453–6.
Deshmukh S, Jadhav V. Bromatological and mineral assessment of Clitoria ternatea Linn. Leaves. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014; 6(3):244–6.
Deka M, Medhi AK, Kalita JC. Biochemical estimation of primary metabolites and mineral composition of Clitoria ternatea Linn roots. Bioscan. 2013; 8(2):713–6.
Kumar V, Mukherjee K, Kumar S, Mal M, Mukherjee PK. Validation of HPTLC method for the analysis of taraxerol in Clitoria ternatea. Phytochem Anal. 2008; 19(3):244–50.
Kazuma K, Noda N, Suzuki M. Malonylated flavonol glycosides from the petals of Clitoria ternatea. Phytochem.2003; 62(2):229–37.
Kazuma K, Kogawa K, Noda N, Kato NSM. Identification of delphinidin 3-O-(6”-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside-3'-O-beta-glucoside, a postulated intermediate in the biosynthesis of ternatin C5 in the blue petals of Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea). Chem Biodiver. 2004; 1:1762–70.
Manalisha D, Chandra KJ. Preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity study of Clitoria ternatea Linn. roots in albino mice. Int Res J Pharm. 2011; 2:139–40.
Kungsuwan K, Singh K, Phetkao S, Utama-ang N. Effects of pH and anthocyanin concentration on color and antioxidant activity of Clitoria ternatea extract. Food App Biosci J. 2014; 2:31–46.
Chong FC, Gwee XF. Ultrasonic extraction of anthocyanin from Clitoria ternatea flowers using response surface methodology. Nat Prod Res. 2015; 29(15):1485–7. Doi:10.1080/14786419.2015.1027892
Sarumathy K, Dhana Rajan MS, Vijay T, Jayakanthi J.Evaluation of phytoconstituents, nephroprotective and antioxidant activities of Clitoria ternatea. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2011; 1(5):164–72.
Neda GD, Rabeta MS, Ong MT. Chemical composition and anti-proliferative properties of flowers of Clitoria ternatea. Int Food Res J. 2013; 20:1229–34.
Pahune B, Niranjane K, Danao K, Bodhe M, Rokade V. Antimicrobial activity of Clitoria ternatea L. flower extract and use as a natural indicator in acid base titration. J Natl Prod. 2013; 3:48–51.
Neela D, Padma C. Antifungal effect of Clitoria ternatea L. leaf extract on seeds of Pisum sativum L. in relation to the activities of some enzymes. Int J Res Ayu Pharm. 2014;5:99–101.
Nahar K, Rahman MA, Parvin MN, Sarwar S. Evaluation of anthelmintic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Clitoria ternatea Linn. Stamford J Pharm Sci. 2010; 3(1):46–8.
Salhan M, Kumar B, Sharma P, Sandhar HK, Gautam M. Comparative anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extract of Clitoria ternatea. Int J Drug Develop Res. 2011; 3:62–8.
Sarojini N, Kanti CC, Singh Das MD, Priyanka J, Kumari SU. Anthelmintic activity of Clitoria ternatea leaf extracts.J Pharm Res Opinion. 2012; 2:49–50.
Upwar N, Patel R, Waseem N, Mahobia NK. Evaluation of antidiarrhoeal activity of the root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2010; 5(1):131–4.
Jayachitra A, Padma PR. Antioxidant potential of Clitoria ternatea leaf extracts in vitro. Int J Pharm Biol Sci. 2012;3(4):753–63.
Madhu, K. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of in vitro growth plants Clitoria ternatea L., using DPPH assay. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2013; 6(2):38–42.
Phrueksanan W, Yibchok-anun S, Adisakwattana S. Protection of Clitoria ternatea flower petal extract against free radical-induced hemolysis and oxidative damage in canine erythrocytes. Res Vet Sci. 2014; 97(2):358–64.
Solanki YB, Jain SM. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Clitoria ternatea and Vigna mungo in rats. Pharm Biol.2010; 48(8):915–23.
Murugalakshmi M, Valli G, Mareeswari P, Thangapandian V. Antipyretic and purgative activities of Clitoria ternatea leaves extracts. World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013; 3(1):632–7.
Suganya G, Sampath Kumar P, Dheeba B, Sivakumar R. In vitro antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Clitoria ternatea L. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci.2014; 6(7):342–7.
Kavitha R, Premalakshmi V. Studies on the synergetic effect of Trichosanthes dioica and Clitoria ternatea leaf extract on the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. International J Res Pharm Biomed Sci. 2012; 3(3):1056–64.
Talpate KA, Bhosale UA, Zambare MR, Somani R. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity of Clitorea ternatea Linn on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. An Int Quart J Res Ayu. 2013; 34(4):433–9.
Maity N, Nema NK, Sarkar BK, Mukherjee PK. Standardized Clitoria ternatea leaf extract as hyaluronidase,elastase and matrix-metalloproteinase-1 inhibitor. Indian J Pharmacol. 2012; 44(5):584–7.
Uma B, Prabhaka K, Rajendran S. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of Clitoria ternatea Linn against extended spectrum beta lactamase producing enteric and urinary pathogens. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2009;2(4):94–6.
Kulkarni C, Pattanshetty JR, Amruthraj G. Effect of alcoholic extract of Clitoria ternatea Linn. on central nervous system in rodents. Indian J Exp Biol. 1988; 26(12):957–60.
Taranalli AD, Cheeramkuzhy TC. Influence of Clitoria ternatea memory and central cholinergic activity in rats.Pharm Biol. 2000; 38(1):51–6.
Rai KS, Murthy KD, Karanth KS, Rao MS. Clitoria ternatea (Linn) root extract treatment during growth spurt period enhances learning and memory in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2001; 45(3):305–13.
Rai KS, Murthy KD, Karanth KS, Nalini K, Rao MS, Srinivasan KK. Clitoria ternatea root extract enhances acetylcholine content in rat hippocampus. Fitoterapia.2002; 73(7-8):685–9.
Jain NN, Ohal CC, Shroff SK, Bhutada RH, Somani RS, Kasture VS, Kasture SB. Clitoria ternatea and the CNS.Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003; 75(3):529–36.
Shende V, Sahane R, Lawar M, Hamdulay N, Langote H.Evaluation of anti-compulsie effect of ethanolic extract on Clitoria ternatea in mice. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2012;5:120–3.
Sarwar S, Rahman MdR, Nahar K, Rahman MA. Analgesic and neuropharmacological actiivties of methanolic leaf extract of Clitoria ternatea Linn. J Pharm Phytochem.2014; 2(5):110–4.
Mukherjee S, Pawar N, Kulkarni O, Nagarkar B, Thopte S, Bhujbal A, Pawar P. Evaluation of free-radical quenching properties of standard Ayurvedic formulation Vayasthapana Rasayana. BMC Complement Altern Med.2011; 11:38.
Ramanathan M, Balaji B, Justin A. Behavioural and neurochemical evaluation of Perment® an herbal formulation in chronic unpredictable mild stress induced depressive model. Indian J Exp Biol. 2011; 49(4):269–75.