Artemia salina Lethality and Histopathological Studies of Siam Weed, Chromolaena odorata
Keywords:Artemia salina, Brine Shrimp, Chromolaena odorata, Histopathology, Plant, Weed
AbstractSiam weed, Chromolaena odorata, leaves, stem, and root were extracted with aqueous and ethanol solvents within 1, 3, 5 and 24 hours. The extractions were determined amount of total phenolic compound using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The extract that showed the highest amount of total phenolic compound was used for evaluating the cytotoxicity test against Artemia salina at varying concentrations as 0, 50, 500, 5,000 and 50,000 ppm. The cytotoxicity data were determined the median and 90% lethal concentration, LC50 and LC90, respectively, within 24 hours. The result revealed that the highest amount of total phenolic compound was 198.02+3.96 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of aqueous leaf extraction in 24 h. Therefore, the 24-hour aqueous extract of C. odorata leaf expressed the 24-h LC50 and LC90 values in A. salina were 43, 551 and 78,391 ppm, respectively. The lesions were observed in intestinal parts such as edema, deformation or elongation of the enterocytes, blebbing cells, and pyknotic cells.
Badyal D, Desai C. Animal use in pharmacology education and research: the changing scenario. Indian J Pharmacol. 2014; 46(3):257–65.
Rajabi S, Ramazani A, Hamidi M, Naji T. Artemia salina as a model organism in toxicity assessment of nanoparticles. DARU J Pharm Sci. 2015; 23(1):20.
Mohamed A, Sheir S, Osman G, Azeem HA. Toxic effects of heavy metals pollution on biochemical activities of the adult brine shrimp, Artemia salina. Can J Pure Appl Sci. 2014; 8(3):3019–28.
Hamidi M, Jovanova B, Panovska T. ToxicÐ¾logical evaluation of the plant products using brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) model. Macedonian Pharm Bull. 2014; 60(1):9–18.
Montanher ABP, Pizzolatti MG, Brighente IMC. An application of the brine shrimp bioassay for general screening of Brazilian medicinal plants. Acta Farm Bonaer. 2002; 21(3):175–8.
Adoum O. Determination of toxicity levels of some Savannah plants using brine shrimp test (BST). Bayero J Pure Appl Sci. 2009; 2(1):135–8.
Krishnaraju A, Rao T, Sundararaju D, Vanisree M, Tsay H, Subbaraju G. Assessment of bioactivity of Indian medicinal plants using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality assay. Int J Appl Sci Eng. 2005; 3(2):125–34.
Gadir S. Assessment of bioactivity of some Sudanese medicinal plants using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality assay. J Chem Pharm Res. 2012; 4(12):5145–8.
Moshi M, Innocent E, Magadula J, Otieno D, Weisheit A. Brine shrimp toxicity of some plants used as traditional medicines in Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Tanazania J Health Res. 2010; 12(1):63–7.
Emani L, Ravada S, Meka B, Garafa M, Golakoti T. A new flavanone from the leaves of Chromolaena odorata. Nat Prod Commun. 2015; 10(9):1555–9.
Wafo P, Kamdem R, Ali Z, Anjum S, Begum A, Oluyemisi O, et al. Kaurane-type diterpenoids from Chromoleana odorata, their x-ray diffraction studies and potent Î±-glucosidase inhibitor of 16-kauren-19-oic acid. Fitoterapia. 2011; 82(4):642–6.
Yakubu M. Effect of a 60-day oral gavage of a crude alkaloid extract from Chromolaena odorata leaves on hormonal and spermatogenic indices of male rats. J Androl. 2012; 33(6):1199–207.
Joshi R. Chemical composition of the essential oils of aerial parts and flowers of Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. from Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka. J Essent Oil Bear Pl. 2013; 16(1):71–5.
Anyasor G, Aina D, Olushola M, Aniyikawe A. Phytochemical constituents, proximate analysis, antioxidants, anti-bacterial and wound healing properties of leaf extracts of Chromolaena odorata. Ann Biol Res. 2011; 2(2):441–51.
Adedapo A, Oyagbemi A, Fagbohum O, Omobowale T, Yakubu M. Evaluation of the anticancer properties of the methanol leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata on HT29 lung cancer cell line. J Pharm Phytochem. 2016; 5(2):52–7.
Uhegbu F, Imo C, Onwuegbuchulam C. Lipid lowering, hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of Chromolaena odorata (L) and Ageratum conyzoides (L) ethanolic leaf extracts in albino rats. J Med Plants Stud. 2016; 4(2):155–9.
Pandith H, Zhang X, Thongpraditchote S, Wongkrajang Y, Gritsanapan W, Baek S. Effect of Siam weed extract and its bioactive component scutellarein tetramethyl ether on anti-inflammatory activity through NF-B pathway. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013; 147(2):434–41.
Stanley M, Ifeany O, Nwakaego C, Esther I. Antimicrobial effects of Chromolaena odorata on some human pathogens. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci. 2014; 3(3):1006–12.
Ezenyi I, Salawu O, Kulkarni R, Emeje M. Antiplasmodial activity-aided isolation and identification of quercetin-4'methyla ether in Chromolaena odorata leaf fraction with high activity against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Parasitol Res. 2014; 113(12):4415–22.
Jiraungkoorskul W. Larvicidal and histopathological effects of Andrographis paniculata leaf extract against Culex quinquefasciatus larva. Walailak J Sci Technol. 2016; 13:133–40.
Agbor G, Vinson J, Donnelly P. Folin-Ciocalteau reagent for polyphenolic assay. Int J Food Sci Nutrit Diet. 2014; 3(8):147–56.
Meyer B, Ferrign N, Putnam J, Jacobsen L, Nichols D, McLaughlin J. Brine shrimp: A convenient general bioassay for active plant constituents. J Med Plant Res. 1982; 45:31–4.23. Finney D. Probit analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2009.
Presnell J, Schreibman M. Humason's animal tissue techniques. 5th ed. USA: Johns Hopkins University Press; 1997.
Shetty K, McCue P. Phenolic antioxidant biosynthesis in plants for functional food application: integration of systems biology and biotechnological approaches. Food Biotechnol. 2003; 17(2):67–97.
Rao KS, Chaudhury P, Pradhan A. Evaluation of anti-oxidant activities and total phenolic content of Chromolaena odorata. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010; 48(2):729–32.
Krishanti PM, Rathinam X, Kasi M, Ayyalu D, Surash R, Sadasivam K, Subramaniam S. A comparative study on the antioxidant activity of methanolic leaf extracts of Ficus religiosa L, Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Rabinson, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Tridax procumbens L. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2010; 3(5):348–50.
Balakrishna A, Josthna P, Naidu C. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of root bark of Chromolaena odorata - an important antidiabetic medicinal plant. Pharmacophore. 2014; 5(1):49–57.
Hanphakphoom S, Thophon S, Waranusantigul P, Kangwanrangsan N, Krajangsang S. Antimicrobial activity of Chromolaena odorata extracts against bacterial human skin infections. Mod Appl Sci. 2016; 10(2):159–71.
Phan T, Wang L, See P, Grayer R, Chan S, Lee S. Phenolic compounds of Chromoleana odorata protect cultured skin cells from oxidative damage: A new potential agent for cutaneous wound healing. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001; 24(12):1373-9.
OECD. Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. OECD Series on Testing and Assessment Harmonised Integrated Classification System for Human Health and Environmental Hazards of Chemical Substances and Mixtures. vol. 33. Paris: OECD Publishing; 2002.
Asomugha R, Ezejiofor A, Okafor P, Ijeh I. Acute and cytotoxicity studies of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Chromolaena odorata. Pakistan J Biol Sci. 2015; 18(1):46–9.
Olowa L, Nuneza O. Brine shrimp lethality assay of the ethanolic extracts of three selected species of medicinal plants from Iligan city, Philippines. Int Res J Biol Sci. 2013; 2(11):74–7.
Kikuchi S. The fine structure of the alimentary canal of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina: the midgut. Ann Report Iwate Med Uni. 1972; 7:15–47.
Hootman S, Conte F. Fine structure and function of the alimentary epithelium in Artemia salina nauplii. Cell Tissue Res. 1974; 155:423–36.
Gunasekara RA, Rekecki A, Cornillie P, Cornelissen M, Sorgeloos P, Simoens P, et al. Morphological characteristics of the digestive tract of gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana nauplii. Aquaculture. 2011; 321:1–7.
Kjanijou M, Jiraungkoorskul K, Kosai P, Jiraungkoorskul W. Effect of Murraya paniculata leaf extract against Culex quinquefasciatus larva. Asian J Biol Sci. 2012; 5:201–8.
Pavananundt P, Jiraungkoorskul K, Kosai P, Jiraungkoorskul W. Larvicidal properties of Cassia siamea leaf against Aedes aegypti larvae. Int J Mod Agricul. 2013; 2:1–8.