Neuroprotective Potential of Bacopa monnieri, Camellia sinensis and Curcumin on Chlorpyrifos Exposed Drosophila melanogaster

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  • School of Bioengineering and Biosciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara – 144411, Punjab ,IN ORCID logo
  • School of Bioengineering and Biosciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara – 144411, Punjab ,IN
  • School of Bioengineering and Biosciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara – 144411, Punjab ,IN



Antioxidant, Drosophila melanogaster, Free Radical Scavenging, Neurodegeneration, Plant Extract, Total Phenolic Content
Toxicology and neurodegeneration


The popular treatment approaches of neurodegenerative diseases are generally for symptom management, but unfortunately, there is no significant curative approach present so far that can signifcantly reduce its progression. Indian traditional medicine is being used alone or in a combination of herbs to fight against these diseases. The commonly used herbs/traditional medicine(s) for this purpose are Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi), Curcuma longa (curcumin) and Camellia sinensis (green tea). In the present study, herbs were judged for its free radical scavenging activity through DPPH free radical scavenging assay, Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and also Total Flavonoid Content (TFC). Among them, green tea exhibited highest total phenolic content and also higher total flavonoid content (99.667±3.547 mg GA/g and with 7.633±2.532 mg QE/g, respectively) followed by Bacopa monnieri and Curcumin. In this context, Green tea showed maximum free radical scavenging activity than curcumin followed by Brahmi (GT>CUR>BM). These herbs were evaluated to check their potential in the improvement of the climbing ability of flies and acetylcholinesterase enzyme activities using Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies). In this study, fruit flies were fed normal food, chlorpyrifos contaminated food and also chlorpyrifos (Chlor) along with individual herbs as mentioned above (Chlor+GT, Chlor+CUR, Chlor+BM). Interestingly, we found that the free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activities, of Brahmi (97%) has the highest improvement in climbing activity as compared to green tea (90%) followed by curcumin (86%) and organisms treated with these herbs show a trend BM>GT>CUR. Moreover, Brahmi also exhibited maximum improvement in AChE activities as compared to curcumin and green tea and showed a trend BM>CUR>GT.


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How to Cite

Pratap Singh, M., Hamid, H., & Himalian, R. (2021). Neuroprotective Potential of <i>Bacopa monnieri, Camellia sinensis</i> and Curcumin on Chlorpyrifos Exposed <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i>. Toxicology International, 28(1), 7–16.



Original Research
Received 2019-04-02
Accepted 2019-07-16
Published 2021-03-24



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