Modulatory Effects of Vitamin C on Enrofloxacin Induced Chromosome Damage and AgNOR Counts in Chick Bone Marrow Nuclei




AgNOR, Chromosomal Aberrations, Enrofloxacin, Vitamin C


Quinolones are broad spectrum antibiotics and are widely used in veterinary practice. But because of continuous improvement in their bactericidal and metabolic properties, it resulted in an increased amount of genotoxicity among animals. Vitamin C is a well-known antioxidant and a free radical scavenger and protects the cell from endogenous oxidative DNA damage. The aim of the study was to find the modulatory effect of Vitamin C against the enrofloxacin induced chromosomal aberrations and nuclear damage. The toxicity includes a significant decrease in mitotic index and increases in the number of chromosomal aberrations like break, deletion, centromeric attenuation, centric fusion and AgNOR counts in chicken bone marrow nuclei. The combined administration of enrofloxacin and Vitamin C resulted has markedly increased the mitotic index and reduced the chromosomal aberrations and AgNOR counts in the bone marrow cells.


Download data is not yet available.


Greene CE, Budsberg SC. Veterinary use of quinolones. Hopper D.C. and Wolfson, J.S. editors.

Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents. 2nd ed. Washington DC : American Society for Microbiology; 1993. p. 474.

Martinez M, McDermott P, Walker R. Pharmacology of fluoroquinolones: A perspective for the use in domestic animals.Veterinary Journal. 2006; 172(1):10–28. PMid: 16154368.

Alba MA, Sanchez RR, Perez NJR, Navarrete JS, Paz RF, Montoya-Estrada A, Gomez JJH. Comparative study of the antimutagenic properties of Vitamins C and E against mutation induced by norfloxacin, BMC Pharmacology, 2008; 8:2. PMid: 18267022 PMCid: PMC2276188.

Gorla N, Ovandoa HG, Larripa I. Chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes exposed in vitro to enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Toxicology Letters. 1999; 104:43–8.

Garcia-Kaufer M, Haddad T, Bergheim M, Gminski R, Gupta P, Mathur N, Kummerer K, Mersch-

Sundermann V. Genotoxic effect of ciprofloxacin during photolytic decomposition monitored by the in vitro micronucleus test (MNvit) in HepG2 cells. Environment Science Pollution Research. 2012; 19:17–9. PMid22161117.

Dutta J, Khanna A. Effect of enrofloxacin on chicken chromosome: A comparative study. Indian Journal of Poultry Science. 2007; 42: 64–8.

McQueen CA, Way BM, Queener SM, Schluter G, Williams GM. Study of potential in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity in hepatocytes of quinolone antibiotics. Toxicol Appl Pharm 1991; 111(2):255–62. 0041-008X(91)90029-E

Shimada H, Itoh S. Effects of new quinolone antibacterial agents on mammalian chromosomes. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1996; 47:115–24. PMid: 8598568.

Enzmann H, Wiemann C, Ahr HJ, Schluter G. Damage to mitochondrial DNA induced by the quinolone Bay y 3118 in embryonic turkey liver. Mutation Research. 1999; 425: 213–24.

Sande AM, Kapusnik-Uner JE, Mandell GL. Chemotherapy of microbial diseases. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. Macmillan International Pergamon Press; 1991. p. 1018.

Dutta J, Khanna A. Enrofloxacin induced toxicity on Gallus chromosomes. Indian Journal of Poultry Science. 1999; 34:129.

Aly FA, Donya SM. In vivo antimutagenic effect of Vitamins C and E against rifampicin-induced chromosome aberrations in mouse bone-marrow cells. Mutation Research. 2002; 518(1):1–7.

Turkez H, Aydin E. The protective role of ascorbic acid on imazalil-induced genetic damage assessed by the cytogenetic tests. Toxicol Ind Health. 2012; 28: 648–54. PMid: 21986888.

Antunes LMG, Takahashi CS. Protection and induction of chromosomal damage by Vitamin C in human

lymphocyte cultures. Teratogenesis Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis. 1999; 19:53–9. 1520-6866(1999)19:1<53::AID-TCM6>3.3.CO;2-D

Arab L, Ehsanpour AA. The effects of ascorbic acid on salt induced alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in in vitro cultura. Biokemistri. 2006; 18:63.

Farghaly AA, Abo-Zeid MAM. Evaluation of the antimutagenic effect of Vitamin C against DNA damage and cytotoxicity induced by trimethyltin in mice. Nature and Science. 2009; 7:1–93.

Sanchez-Moreno C, Paniague M, Madrid A, Martin A. Protective effect of Vitamin C against the ethanol mediated toxic effects on human brain glial cells. J Nut Bioch. 2003; 14:606–13.

Perrone G, Hideshima T, Ikeda H, Okawa Y, Calabrese E, Gorgun G, Santo L, Cirstea D, Raje N, Chauhan D, Baccarani M, Cavo M, Anderson KC. Ascorbic acid inhibits antitumor activity of bortezomib in vivo Vitamin C supplement in multiple mieloma. Leukemia. 2009; 23:1679– 86. PMid: 19369963.

Belin S, Kaya F, Duisit G, Giacometti S, Ciccolini J, Fonte's M.Antiproliferative effect of ascorbic acid is associated with the inhibition of genes necessary to cell cycle progression. PLoS One. 2009; 4:e4409. PMid: 19197388 PMCid: PMC2634969.

Siddique YH, BegT, Afzal M. Antigenotoxic effects of ascorbic acid against megestrol acetate induced genotoxicity in mice. Human and Experimental Toxicology. 2005; 24:121–7. PMid: 15901051. https://doi.


Kahl VF, Reyes JM, Sarmento MS, da Silva J. Mitigation by Vitamin C of the genotoxic effects of nicotine in mice, assessed by the comet assay and micronucleus induction. Mutation Research. 2012; 744(2):140–4. PMid: 22331007.

Abraham SK, Khandelwal N. Ascorbic acid and dietary polyphenol combinations protect against genotoxic damage induced in mice by endogenous nitrosation.Mutation Research. 2013; 757(2):167–72. PMid: 23973768.

Das Roy L, Giri S, Singh S, Giri A. Effects of radiation and Vitamin C treatment on metronidazole genotoxicity in mice.Mutation Research. 2013; 753: 65–71. PMid: 23416157.

Tohamy AA, Abdel AAA, Shafaa MW, Mahmoud WS. Alleviation of genotoxic effects of cyclophosphamide using encapsulation into liposomes in the absence or presence of Vitamin C. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2012; 31:85–91. PMid: 22447834.

Sram RJ, Binkova B, Rossner P, Jr. Vitamin C for DNA damage prevention. Mutation Research. 2012; 733:39–49. PMid: 22178550.

Turkez H. The role of ascorbic acid on titanium dioxide-induced genetic damage assessed by the comet assay and cytogenetic tests. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2011; 63:453–7. PMid: 20346638.

Gurbuz N, Ozkul A, Burgaz S. Effects of Vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity in exfoliated bladder cells of mice in vivo.J BUON. 2009; 14:647–52.

Roy LD, Mazumdar M, Giri S. Effects of low dose radiation and Vitamin C treatment on chloroquine-induced genotoxicity in mice. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2008; 49: 488– 95. PMid: 18618582.

Nefic H. The genotoxicity of Vitamin C in vitro. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2008; 8:141. PMid: 18498264 PMCid: PMC5698344.

Farombi EO, Onyema OO. Monosodium glutamateinduced oxidative damage and genotoxicity in the rat:Modulatory role of Vitamin C, Vitamin E and quercetin.Hum Exp Toxicol. 2006; 25:251. PMid: 16758767.

Ambali SF, Idris SB, Onukak C, Shittu M, Ayo JO. Ameliorative effects of Vitamin C on shortterm sensorimotor and cognitive changes induced by acute chlorpyrifos exposure in Wistar rats.Toxicology and Industrial Health. 2010; 26:547–68. PMid: 20554631.

Antunes LMG, Takahashi CS. Effects of high doses of Vitamins C and E against doxorubicin-induced chromosomal damage in Wistar rat bone marrow cells. Mutation Research-Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. 1998; 419:137– 43.

Rothfels KH, Siminovitch L. An air-drying technique for flattening chromosomes in mammalian cells grown in vitro. Biotechnic and Histochemistry. 1958; 33:73–7. PMid: 13529438.

Shoffner RN, Krishan A, Haiden GJ, Bammi RK, Otis JS. Avian chromosome methodology. Poultry Science. 1967; 46:333–44.

Fechheimer NS. Chromosomes of chickens. Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine. 1990; 34:169–207.

Howell WM, Black DA. Controlled silver-staining of nucleolus organizer regions with a protective colloidal developer: A 1-step method. Experientia. 1980; 36:1014–5. PMid: 6160049.

Vijayalaxmi KK, Venu R. In vivo anticlastogenic effects of L-ascorbic acid in mice. Mutation Research. 1999; 438:47– 51.

Van Bambeke F, Michot JM, Van Eldere J, Tulkens PM. Quinolones in 2005: An update. Europ Soc Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005; 11:256–80. PMid: 15760423.

Mukherjee A, Sen S, Agarwal K. Ciprofloxacin: mammalian DNA topoisomerase type II poison in

vivo. Mutation Research. 1993; 301:87–92.

Basaran A, Erol K, Basaran N, Gunes HV, Acikalin E, Timuralp G, Degirmenci I, Cakmak EA, Tomatir AG.Effects of ciprofloxacin on chromosomes and hepatic and renal functions in rats. Chemother. 1993; 39:182–8. PMid: 8508688.

Herold C, Ocker M, Ganslmayer M, Gerauer H, Hahn EG, Schuppan D. Ciprofloxacin induced apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells. Br J Cancer. 2002; 86:443–8. PMid: 11875713 PMCid: PMC2375221.

Gurbay A, Gonthier B, Signorini-Allibe N, Barret L, Favier A, Hincal F. Ciprofloxacin-induced DNA damage in primary culture of rat astrocytes and protection by vitamin E.Neurotoxicol. 2006; 27: 6–10. PMid: 16122804. 10.1016/j.neuro.2005.05.007

Lim S, Hossain MA, Park J, Choi SH, Kim G. The effect of enrofloxacin on canine tendon cells and chondrocytes proliferation in vitro. Vet Res Commun. 2008; 32:243–53. PMid: 18027099.

Abdou HS, Salah SH, Abdel Rahim EA. The ability of Vitamins A, C and E as antioxidants against the genotoxic potential of tefluthrin. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2009; 3:4190–8.

Siddique YH, Afzal M. Protective role of allicin and L-ascorbic acid against the genotoxic damage induced by chlormadinone acetate in cultured human lymphocytes.Indian J Exp Biol. 2005; 43:769–72.

Abasova OY, Reutova NV, Sycheva LP, Chernysheva EA. Studies of antimutagenic effects of Vitamins A and C in humans. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2013; 154: 649–53. PMid: 23658891.

Misra S, Choudhury RC. Vitamin C modulation of cisplatin-induced cytogenotoxicity in bone marrow, spermatogonia and its transmission in the male germline of Swiss mice. J Chemother. 2006; 18:182–7. PMid: 16736887.

Micha Rabau M, Nyska A, Dayan, D. In vitro effect of ciprofloxacin on HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line:Assessment of cell proliferation by thymidine uptake and silver nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR) histomorphometry.Archives of Toxicology. 1995; 70 (2):124–6. PMid: 8773185.

Jozsa L, Kannus P, Jarvinen M, Isola J, Kvist M, Lehto M. Atrophy and regeneration of rat calf muscles cause reversible changes in the number of nucleolar organizer regions. Evidence that also in nonproliferating cells the number of NORs is a marker of protein synthesis activity. Lab Invest.

; 69:231–7.

Sae-Yong H, Kyu-Yoo H, Eun-Young L, Soo-Whon E., SukRan C, Chan-Soo H, Yung-Hyun P, Sung-Keun C. Effect of Vitamin C on plasma total antioxidant status in patients with paraquat intoxication. Toxicol Lett. 2002; 126:51–9.

Fotoui H, Garou E, Makni-ayadi F and Zeghal N. Oxidative stress induced by Lambdacyhalothrin (LTC) in rat erythrocytes and brain attenuation by vitamin C. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008; 26:225–31. PMid:21783916.

Grajeda-Cota P, Ramirez-Mares MV, Mejia EC. Vitamin C protects against in vitro cytotoxicity of cypermethrin in rat hepatocytes Toxicol. In vitro. 2004; 18:13–9.



How to Cite

Dutta, J. (2019). Modulatory Effects of Vitamin C on Enrofloxacin Induced Chromosome Damage and AgNOR Counts in Chick Bone Marrow Nuclei. Toxicology International, 25(3), 149–154.