Bisphenols as Human Health Hazard: A Systematic Review on Potent Sources, Route of Exposure, Harmful Effects and Safe Alternatives


  • Department of Food Science and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana – 141004, Punjab ORCID logo
  • Department of Food, Technology and Nutrition, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara –144411, Punjab
  • Department of Food, Technology and Nutrition, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara –144411, Punjab ORCID logo
  • Department of Food Science and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana – 141004, Punjab
  • Department of Food, Technology and Nutrition, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara –144411, Punjab ORCID logo



Bisphenols, Bisphenol A, Bisphenol B, Bisphenol S, Bisphenol Toxicity.


Bisphenols (BPs), as components of polycarbonates and laquer-coatings, are used for day to day household purposes, and frequent exposure has potential negative effects on each organ of the body, mostly evident by genetic changes and mitochondrial dysfunction. Children are at high risk due to higher accumulation per kg body weight which explicit toxic effect. Present strategies are to downsize exposure by replacing polycarbonates with wood, glass, stainless steel or green substitutes like bisguaiacol-F, soy protein isolate etc. At present, biodegradation by bacteria and fungus would be a great help to fight environmental bisphenols. It is necessary to come up with strong and functionally equivalent alternative to bisphenols which can safeguard future generations from further harmful effects.


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How to Cite

Kumar, A., Gupta, K., Tomer, V., Kaur, A., & Kumar, V. (2019). Bisphenols as Human Health Hazard: A Systematic Review on Potent Sources, Route of Exposure, Harmful Effects and Safe Alternatives. Toxicology International, 25(1), 78–92.



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