Neuroprotective Effect of Vitamin E Supplementation in Wistar Rat Treated with Acrylamide
Keywords:Acrylamide toxicity, functional observational battery, neurotoxicity, protective effect of vitamin E
AbstractMale wistar rats (weighting 160-180 g) were divided into six groups of six animals per group. Groups A and F served as control. Groups B, C, D, and E received acrylamide at 20 mg/kg body weight for 28 days and groups C and E received additionally vitamin E (50 IU/kg body weight) for 1 to 28 days and 29 to 42 days of experiment, respectively. The animals from groups A, B, and C were sacrificed on day 28 of experiment and from groups D, E, and F on day 42 of experiment, respectively. The FOB (Functional Observational Battery) and histopathological changes were investigated at the end of 4th week and 6th week. FOB at the end of 4th week, of rats given acrylamide alone, or in combination with vitamin E, revealed a significant change in CNS, neuromuscular, and autonomic domains. A marked decrease in grip strength was recorded. A significant increase in foot splay, reduction in width and angle of sequential stride was noticed. Degenerative changes, necrosis, congestion, and kupffer cell proliferation in liver while vacuolar degenerative changes in tubular epithelium, coagulative necrosis, and hemorrhages in kidney were constant findings in acrylamide intoxicated rats. Neuronal degeneration, severe gliosis, congestion were found in brain. Spinal cord revealed demyelination. Acute microscopic softening of lumbar cord, bilateral necrosis with malacia and liquefaction of white matter, and loss of myelin from grey matter were seen. In the recovery period, vitamin E-treated rats revealed improvement in remyelination of spinal cord. In brain mild gliosis was seen. Thus, it appears that vitamin E is not able to protect them from acrylamide toxicity during active feeding, but after cessation of acrylamide feeding treatment with vitamin E revealed faster recovery as compared to the non-treated group.
How to Cite
Grivas S, Jagerstad M, Lingnert H, Skog K, Tornqvist M, Aman P. Acrylamide in food mechanisms of formation and influencing factors during heating of foods. Sweden: Swedish National Food Administration; 2002.
Arikawa, A, Shiga M. Determination of trace acrylamide in the crops by gas chromatography. Bunseki Kagaku. 1980;29:33- 9; Chem. Abstr., 93: 202742.
Schultzova J, Tekel J. Acrylamide monomer occurrence in sugar.Dtsch Lebensm.-Rundsch. 1996;92:281-2; Chem. Abstr., 125: 326762.
Friedman M. Chemistry, biochemistry, and safety of acrylamide:A review. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:4504-26.
Rydberg P, Eriksson S, Tareke E, Karlsson P, Ehrenberg L, Törnqvist M. Investigations of factors that influnce the acrylamide content of heated foodstuffs. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:7012-8.
Sumner SC, Fennell TR, Moore TA, Chanas B, Gonzalez F, Ghanayem BI. Role of cytochrome P450 2E1 in the metabolism of acrylamide and acrylonitrile in mice. Chem Res Toxicol 1999;12:1110-6.
Dearfield KL, Douglas GR, Ehling UH, Moore MM, Sega GA, Brusick DJ. Acrylamide: a review of its genotoxicity and an assessment of heritable genetic risk. Mutat Res 1995;330:71-99.
Mccollister DD, Oyen F, Rowe VK. Toxicology of acrylamide. Ther Ggw 1964;103:172-81.
Ewards PM. The insensitivity of the developing rat fetus to the toxic effects of acrylamide. Chem Biol Interact 1976;12:13-8.
Erin AN, Spirin MM, Tabidze LV, Kagan VE. Formation of alpha-tocopherol complexes with fatty acids. A hypothetical mechanism of stabilization of biomembranes by vitamin E.Biochim Biophys Acta 1984;774:96-102.
London RS, Murphy L, Kitlowski KE. Breast cancer prevention by supplemental vitamin E. J Am Coll Nutr,1985; 4: 559-64.
Pace A, Savarese A, Picardo M, Maresca V, Pacetti U, Del Monte G, et al. Neuroprotecteve effect of Vitamin E supplementation in patiens treated with cisplantin chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:927-31.
Sano M, Ernesto C, Thomas RG, Klauber MR, Schafer K, Grundman M, et al. A controlled trial of selegiline, alpha-tocopherol, or both as treatment for Alzheimer's disease. The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study. N Engl J Med 1997;336:1216-22.
Jangir B. Toxicopathological and genotoxicity effect of acrylamide toxicity in Wistar rats. M.V.Sc thesis. Nagpur: Maharastra Animal and Fishery Sciences University; 2009.
Luna AG. Manaul of histological staining methods of the Armed Force Institute of Pathology, 3rd ed London: Mc Graw Hill Book Co; 1968. p. 124-5.
Youssef AF, Santi BW. Simple neurobehavioural functional observational battery and objective gait analysis validation by the use of acrylamide and methanol with a built-in recovery period. Environ Res 1997;73:52-62.
Snecdecor,GW, Cochron WG Statistical methods. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford and IBH; 1994.
Yousef MI, El-Demerdash FM. Acrylamide-induced oxidative stress and biochemical perturbation in rats. Toxicology 2006;219:133-41.
Sharma A, Sharma R Jain J.Biochemical changes in the liver of Swiss albino mice orally exposed to acrylamide. Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology 2008;2:542-50.
Nedzvetsky VS, Tuzcu M, Yasar A, Tikhomirov AA, Baydas G.Effects of vitamin E against aluminum neurotoxicity in rats.Biochemistry (Mosc) 2006;71:239-44.
Goudarzvand M, Javan M, Mirnajafi-Zadeh J, Mozafari S, Tiraihi T. Vitamins E and D3 attenuate demyelination and potentiate remyelination processes of hippocampal formation of rats following local injection of ethidium bromide. Cell Mol Neurobiol 2010;30:289-99.
Lehning EJ, Balaban CD, Ross JF, LoPachi RM. Acrylamide neuropathy.II. Spatiotemporal characteristics of nerve cell damage in brainstem and spinal cord. Neurotoxicology 2002;23:415-29.
Awad ME, Abdel-Rahman MS, Hassan SA. Acrylamide toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toxicol in Vitro 1998;12:699-704.
Kalender S, Uzun FG, Durak D, Demir F, Kalender Y. Malathioninduced hepatoxicity in rats: The effects of vitamin C and E. Food Chem Toxicol 2010;48:633-8.
Schulze GE, Boysen BG. A neurotoxicity screening battery for use in safety evaluation: effects of acrylamide and 3', 3'-iminodipropionitrile. Fundam Appl Toxicol 1991;16:602-15.
Crofton KM, Padilla S, Tilson HA, Anthony DC, Raymer JH,MacPhail RC. The impact of dose rate on the neurotoxicity of acrylamide: the interaction of administered dose, target tissue concentrations, tissue damage, and functional effects. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1996;139:163-76.
Gipon L, Schotman P, Jennekens FG, Gispen WH. Polyneuropathies and CNS protein metabolism. Description of the acrylamide syndrome in rats. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 1977;3:115-23.
Hossary EI GG, Mansour SM, Mohamed AS. Neurotoxic effects of Chloropyrifos and Possible Protective Role of Antioxidant Supplements: an Experimental Study. J Appl Sci Res 2009;9: 1218-22.