To Study the Effect of Vitamin D and E on Sodium-Fluoride-induced Toxicity in Reproductive Functions of Male Rabbits


  • Departments of Physiology, Pt B. D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana
  • Departments of Physiology, Pt B. D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana
  • Departments of Pathology, Pt B. D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana
  • Departments of Physiology, Pt B. D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana
  • Departments of Physiology, Pt B. D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana
  • Departments of Biochemistry, Pt B. D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana


Fluoride, histology, rabbits, sperm, vitamin D, vitamin E


Objectives: Fluorosis is an endemic problem in many countries of world. This study was designed to see the effect of fluoride on the reproductive system and to see the role if any of vitamin D or E supplementation on it. Materials and Methods: Sixty rabbits were divided into six equal groups. Group I was fed on standard diet, Group II vehicle treated control, Group III on sodium fluoride (NaF) 20 mg/kg body weight, Group IV on NaF + Vitamin D, Group V on NaF + vitamin E, and Group VI on NaF + vitamin D + vitamin E. Results: In Group III (fed on sodium fluoride) significant decrease in sperm count (P<0.001), motility (P<0.001), progressive motility (P<0.01), and epididymal weight (P<0.05) compared to control was seen that was also evident on testicular histology. With vitamin D supplementation, there was a significant improvement in the sperm count (P<0.001), motility (P<0.01), and progressive motility (P<0.05) but remained significantly lower than the control values. With vitamin E supplementation there was significant improvement in the sperm count near normal. With vitamin D and E combined supplementation there was significant improvement in both sperm count and motility near to normal. Conclusions: We conclude that combined vitamin D and E treatment showed a significant improvement in reproductive functions affected by fluoride.


Download data is not yet available.


Messer HH, Armstrong WD, Singer L. Fertility impairment in mice on a low fluoride intake. Science 1972;177:893-4.

Susheela AK. Treatise on Fluorosis. 3rd ed. Delhi: Fluorosis Research and Rural Development Foundation; 2006. p. 1-119.

Chinoy NJ, Sequeira E. Effects of fluoride on the histoarchitecture of reproductive organs of the male mouse. Reprod Toxicol 1989;3:261-7.

Chinoy NJ, Sequeira E. Fluoride induced biochemical changes in reproductive organs of male mice. Fluoride 1989;2:78-85.

Narayana MV, Chinoy NJ. Effect of fluoride on rat testicular steroidogenesis. Fluoride 1994;27:7-12.

Neelam K, Suhasini RV, Sudhakar RY. Incidence of prevalence of infertility among married male members of endemic fluorosis districts of Andhra Pradesh. Proceedings of a conference of the international society of fluoride research, Switzerland; 1987. p. 9.

Ghosh D, Das S, Sarkar S, Maiti R, Jana D, Das UB. Testicular toxicity in sodium fluoride treated rats: Association with oxidative stress. Reprod Toxicol 2002;16:385-90.

Susheela AK, Kumar A. Ultrastructural studies on the leydig cells of rabbits exposed to chronic fluoride toxicity. Environ Sci 1997;5:79-94.

Kwiecinski GG, Petrie GI, DeLuca HE. Vitamin D is necessary for reproductive functions of the male rat. J Nutr 1989;119:741-4.

Halloran BP, DeLuca HF. Vitamin D deficiency and reproduction in rats. Science 1979;204:73-4.

Hurley WL, Doane RM. Recent developments in the roles of vitamins and minerals in reproduction. J Dairy Sci 1989;72:784-804.

Sood S, Reghunandanan R, Reghunandanan V, Marya RK, Singh PI. Effect of vitamin D repletion on testicular function in vitamin D-deficient rats. Ann Nutr Metab 1995;39:95-8.

McCay PD, King MM. Vitamin E: Its role as biological free radical scavenger and its relationship to the microsomal mixed function oxidase system. In: Machlin LJ ed. Vitamin E: A comprehensive treatise. New York and Basel: Marcel Dekker Inc; 1980. p. 289-317.

Chinoy NJ, Sharma A. Amelioration of fluoride toxicity by vitamin E and D in reproductive functions of male. Fluoride 1998;31:203-16.

Chinoy NJ, Sequeira E, Narayana MV. Effects of vitamin C and calcium on the reversibility of fluoride induced alterations in spermatozoa of rabbit. Fluoride 1991;24:29-39.

Brown FH. Diet and Husbandry. Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, Elsevier Health Sciences; 2002. p. 36.

Castellini C, Lattaioli P, Dal Bosco A, Minelli A, Mugnai C. Oxidative status and semen characteristics of rabbit buck as affected by dietary vitamin E, C and n-3 fatty acids. Reprod Nutr Dev 2003;43:91-103.

Saalu LC, Oluyemi KA, Omotuyi IO. Tocopherol (vitamin E) attenuates the testicular toxicity associated with experimental cryptorchidism in rats. Afr J Biotechnol 2007;6:1373-7.

Chinoy NF, Narayana MV, Dalal V, Rawat M, Patel D. Amelioration of fluoride toxicity in some accessory reproductive glands and spermatozoa of rat. Fluoride 1995;28:75-86.

Sprando RL, Collins TF, Black T, Olejnik N, Rorie J. Testing the potential of sodium fluoride to affect spermatogenesis: A morphometric study. Food Chem Toxicol 1998;36:1117-24.

Huang C, Yang H, Niu R, Sun Z, Wang J. Effect of sodium fluoride on androgen receptor expression in male mice. Fluoride 2008;41:10-7.

Huang C, Niu R, Wang J. Toxic effects of sodium fluoride on reproductive function in male mice. Fluoride 2007;40:162-8.

Sood S, Marya RK, Reghunandanam R, Singh GP, Jaswal TS, Gopinathan K. Effect of vitamin D deficiency on testicular function in the rat. Ann Nutr Metab 1992;36:203-8.

Zakrzewska H, Udala J, Blaszczyk B. In vitro influence of sodium fluoride on ram semen quality and enzyme activities. Fluoride 2002;35:153-60.

Chinoy NJ, Shukla S, Walimbe AS, Bhattacharya S. Fluoride toxicity on rat testis and cauda epididymal tissue components and its reversal. Fluoride 1997;30:41-50.

Kumar A, Susheela AK. Effects of chronic fluoride toxicity on the morphology of ductus epididymis and the maturation of spermatozoa of rabbit. Int J Exp Path 1995;76:1-11.

Bataineh HN, Nusier M. Impact of 12-week ingestion of sodium fluoride on aggression, sexual behavior and fertility in adult male rats. Fluoride 2006;39:293-301.



How to Cite

Kumar, N., Sood, S., Arora, B., Singh, M., ., B., & Roy, P. S. (2018). To Study the Effect of Vitamin D and E on Sodium-Fluoride-induced Toxicity in Reproductive Functions of Male Rabbits. Toxicology International, 19(2), 182–187. Retrieved from



Original Research