Effect of Extraction Media and Storage Time on the Elution of Monomers from Four Contemporary Resin Composite Materials

Jump To References Section


  • ,GB
  • ,GB
  • ,GR
  • ,GR
  • ,GB


High-performance liquid chromatography, monomer elution, resin composite restorations, storage solution, storage time


Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different extraction media, including culture media, as well as storage times on the elution of monomers from modern dental composites. Materials and Methods: Four contemporary composite materials were tested: (a) Clearfil Majesty Esthetic (Kuraray), (b) Esthet X (DENTSPLY), (c) Filtek Silorane (3M ESPE), and (d) Admira (Voco). Forty"‘eight specimens were made. The specimens were stored in 1 ml of (a) artificial saliva, (b) Dulbecco`s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), (c) DMEM plus 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), and (d) ethanol 75%. The specimens were analyzed after 24 hours and after 1 week of storage. HPLC Liquid Chromatography was performed to analyze the extracted solutions. The statistical package SPSS 18 was used for the statistical analysis of the results. Results: All the materials tested released monomers that were consistent with the base composition of their resin matrix. Bisphenol"‘A (BPA) was detected in Clearfil Esthetic and EsthetX when ethanol 75% was used for storage. TEGDMA was released at a faster rate compared to the other monomers with most of the monomer eluted in the first 24 hours. The effect of storage solution and storage time on the elution of the same monomers varied between materials. Conclusions: There was a significant effect of time, storage solution, and material on the elution of the detectable unbound monomers. Unbound monomers were detected in culture media, which may lead to false"‘negative results in cytotoxicity tests of resin composite materials. BPA was detected in two of the tested materials.


Download data is not yet available.



How to Cite

Tsitrou, E., Kelogrigoris, S., Koulaouzidou, E., Antoniades-Halvatjoglou, M., Koliniotou"‘Koumpia, E., & van Noort, R. (2018). Effect of Extraction Media and Storage Time on the Elution of Monomers from Four Contemporary Resin Composite Materials. Toxicology International, 21(1), 89–95. Retrieved from https://www.informaticsjournals.com/index.php/toxi/article/view/20980



Original Research
Received 2018-04-24
Accepted 2018-04-24
Published 2018-04-25



Bakopoulou A, Papadopoulos T, Garefis P. Molecular toxicology of substances released from resin"‘based dental restorative materials. Int J Mol Sci 2009;10:3861"‘99.

Ferracane JL. Elution of leachable components from composites.J Oral Rehabil 1994;21:441"‘52.

Polydorou O, Hammad M, Konig A, Hellwig E, Kummerer K.Release of monomers from different core build"‘up materials.Dent Mater 2009;25:1090"‘5.

Polydorou O, Konig A, Hellwig E, Kummerer K. Long"‘term release of monomers from modern dental"‘composite materials. Eur J Oral Sci 2009;117:68"‘75.

Sideridou ID, Achilias DS. Elution study of unreacted Bis"‘GMA, TEGDMA, UDMA, and Bis"‘EMA from light"‘cured dental resins and resin composites using HPLC. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2005;74:617"‘26.

Spahl W, Budzikiewicz H, Geurtsen W. Determination of leachable components from four commercial dental composites by gas and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. J Dent 1998;26:137"‘45.

Geurtsen W. Biocompatibility of resin"‘modified filling materials.Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2000;11:333"‘55.

Geurtsen W. Substances released from dental resin composites and glass ionomer cements. Eur J Oral Sci 1998;106:687"‘95.

Gupta SK, Saxena P, Pant VA, Pant AB. Release and toxicity of dental resin composite. Toxicol Int 2012;19:225"‘34.

Samuelsen JT, Dahl JE, Karlsson S, Morisbak E, Becher R.Apoptosis induced by the monomers HEMA and TEGDMA involves formation of ROS and differential activation of the MAP"‘kinases p38, JNK and ERK. Dent Mater 2007;23:34"‘9.

Stanislawski L, Lefeuvre M, Bourd K, Soheili"‘Majd E, Goldberg M, Perianin A. TEGDMA"‘induced toxicity in human fibroblasts is associated with early and drastic glutathione depletion with subsequent production of oxygen reactive species. J Biomed Mater Res A 2003;66:476"‘82.

Schweikl H, Hiller KA, Eckhardt A, Bolay C, Spagnuolo G, Stempfl T, et al. Differential gene expression involved in oxidative stress response caused by triethylene glycol dimethacrylate.Biomaterials 2008;29:1377"‘87.

Engelmann J, Leyhausen G, Leibfritz D, Geurtsen W. Metabolic effects of dental resin components in vitro detected by NMR spectroscopy. J Dent Res 2001;80:869"‘75.

About I, Camps J, Mitsiadis TA, Bottero MJ, Butler W, Franquin JC.Influence of resinous monomers on the differentiation in vitro of human pulp cells into odontoblasts. J Biomed Mater Res 2002;63:418"‘23.

Noda M, Wataha JC, Kaga M, Lockwood PE, Volkmann KR, Sano H. Components of dentinal adhesives modulate heat shock protein 72 expression in heat"‘stressed THP"‘1 human monocytes at sublethal concentrations. J Dent Res 2002;81:265"‘9.

Kawai K, Tsuchitani Y. Effects of resin composite components onglucosyltransferase of cariogenic bacterium. J Biomed Mater Res 2000;51:123"‘7.

Hansel C, Leyhausen G, Mai UE, Geurtsen W. Effects of various resin composite (co) monomers and extracts on two caries"‘associated micro"‘organisms in vitro. J Dent Res 1998;77:60"‘7.

Engelmann J, Janke V, Volk J, Leyhausen G, von Neuhoff N, Schlegelberger B, et al. Effects of BisGMA on glutathione metabolism and apoptosis in human gingival fibroblasts in vitro.Biomaterials 2004;25:4573"‘80.

Imazato S, Horikawa D, Nishida M, Ebisu S. Effects of monomers eluted from dental resin restoratives on osteoblast"‘like cells.J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2009;88:378"‘86.

Schweikl H, Schmalz G, Spruss T. The induction of micronuclei in vitro by unpolymerized resin monomers. J Dent Res 2001;80:1615"‘20.

Hanks CT, Strawn SE, Wataha JC, Craig RG. Cytotoxic effects of resin components on cultured mammalian fibroblasts. J Dent Res 1991;70:1450"‘5.

Ratanasathien S, Wataha JC, Hanks CT, Dennison JB. Cytotoxic interactive effects of dentin bonding components on mouse fibroblasts. J Dent Res 1995;74:1602"‘6.

Becher R, Kopperud HM, Al RH, Samuelsen JT, Morisbak E, Dahlman HJ, et al. Pattern of cell death after in vitro exposure to GDMA, TEGDMA, HEMA and two compomer extracts. Dent Mater 2006;22:630"‘40.

Reichl FX, Simon S, Esters M, Seiss M, Kehe K, Kleinsasser N, et al. Cytotoxicity of dental composite (co) monomers and the amalgam component Hg (2+) in human gingival fibroblasts. Arch Toxicol 2006;80:465"‘72.

Moharamzadeh K, Van Noort R, Brook IM, Scutt AM. Cytotoxicity of resin monomers on human gingival fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes. Dent Mater 2007;23:40"‘4.

Issa Y, Watts DC, Brunton PA, Waters CM, Duxbury AJ. Resin composite monomers alter MTT and LDH activity of human gingival fibroblasts in vitro. Dent Mater 2004;20:12"‘20.

Ben"‘Jonathan N, Steinmetz R. The emerging story of bisphenol a.Trends Endocrinol Metab 1998;9:124"‘8.

Al"‘Hiyasat AS, Darmani H, Elbetieha AM. Leached components from dental composites and their effects on fertility of female mice. Eur J Oral Sci 2004;112:267"‘72.

Schmalz G, Preiss A, Arenholt"‘Bindslev D. Bisphenol"‘A content of resin monomers and related degradation products. Clin Oral Investig 1999;3:114"‘9.

Polydorou O, Beiter J, Konig A, Hellwig E, Kummerer K. Effect of bleaching on the elution of monomers from modern dental composite materials. Dent Mater 2009;25:254"‘60.

Azarpazhooh A, Main PA. Is there a risk of harm or toxicity in the placement of pit and fissure sealant materials? A systematic review. J Can Dent Assoc 2008;74:179"‘83.

Hanks CT, Anderson M, Craig RG. Cytotoxic effects of dental cements on two cell culture systems. J Oral Pathol 1981;10:101"‘12.

Bouillaguet S, Shaw L, Gonzalez L, Wataha JC, Krejci I. Long"‘term cytotoxicity of resin"‘based dental restorative materials. J Oral Rehabil 2002;29:7"‘13.

Soheili Majd E, Goldberg M, Stanislawski L. In vitro effects of ascorbate and Trolox on the biocompatibility of dental restorative materials. Biomaterials 2003;24:3"‘9.

Huang FM, Chang YC. Cytotoxicity of resin"‘based restorative materials on human pulp cell cultures. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2002;94:361"‘5.

Geurtsen W, Spahl W, Muller K, Leyhausen G. Aqueous extracts from dentin adhesives contain cytotoxic chemicals. J Biomed Mater Res 1999;48:772"‘7.

Pelka M, Danzl C, Distler W, Petschelt A. A new screening test for toxicity testing of dental materials. J Dent 2000;28:341"‘5.

Eick JD, Kostoryz EL, Rozzi SM, Jacobs DW, Oxman JD, Chappelow CC, et al. In vitro biocompatibility of oxirane/polyol dental composites with promising physical properties. Dent Mater 2002;18:413"‘21.

Moharamzadeh K, Van Noort R, Brook IM, Scutt AM. HPLC analysis of components released from dental composites with different resin compositions using different extraction media.J Mater Sci Mater Med 2007;18:133"‘7.

Polydorou O, Huberty C, Wolkewitz M, Bolek R, Hellwig E, Kummerer K. The effect of storage medium on the elution of monomers from composite materials. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2012;100:68"‘74.

Lee SY, Huang HM, Lin CY, Shih YH. Leached components from dental composites in oral simulating fluids and the resultant composite strengths. J Oral Rehabil 1998;25:575"‘88.

Wu W, McKinney JE. Influence of chemicals on wear of dental composites. J Dent Res 1982;61:1180"‘3.

Polydorou O, Trittler R, Hellwig E, Kummerer K. Elution of monomers from two conventional dental composite materials.Dent Mater 2007;23:1535"‘41.

Sideridou I, Tserki V, Papanastasiou G. Effect of chemical structure on degree of conversion in light"‘cured dimethacrylate"‘based dental resins. Biomaterials 2002;23:1819"‘29.

Tanaka N, Taira M, Wakasa K, Shintani H, Yamaki M. Cutting effectiveness and wear of carbide burs on eight machinable ceramics and bovine dentin. Dental Materials Dent Mater 1991;7:247"‘53.

Kopperud HM, Schmidt M, Kleven IS. Elution of substances from a silorane"‘based dental composite. Eur J Oral Sci 2010;118:100"‘2

Pulgar R, Olea"‘Serrano MF, Novillo"‘Fertrell A, Rivas A, Pazos P, Pedraza V, et al. Determination of bisphenol A and related aromatic compounds released from bis"‘GMA"‘based composites and sealants by high performance liquid chromatography. Environ Health Perspect 2000;108:21"‘7.

Available from: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/ceftopics/topic/ bisphenol.htm. EFSA. [Last accessed on 2012].