Financial Inclusion and Its Measurement

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Banking Sector, CRISIL Index, Deposit Penetration, Financial Inclusion/ Exclusion, National Sample Surveys, Reserve Bank of India.


This short article dwells upon the concept of financial inclusion (FI) of a population, discusses it around the banking sector and its role in this context. It then considers measuring FI and suggests a few new quantitative measures of the same, along with their data requirements, which are not difficult to meet in practice. A brief mention is made about the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) and its implications. Scope for some further work is indicated.




How to Cite

Srinivas, T. V., Viswanath, N., & Raju, T. (2019). Financial Inclusion and Its Measurement. DHARANA - Bhavan’s International Journal of Business, 13(1), 5–11. Retrieved from



Research Articles



Abidi, N.A. (2014) Sustainable Financial Inclusion: A case study of Ranchi District International Journal of Research in commerce & Management, 5(6), 63-67.

Kunt and Clapper (2012): Measuring financial inclusion. Policy research working paper 6025, World Bank.

Pasha, M.A., T. Srivenkataramana and Swamy, K. (2012): Base II norms with special emphasis on capital adequacy ratio of Indian banks, Dharana, Bhavan's International Journal of Business, 6(1).

Raghuram Rajan (2014): Basic suite of products by banks, key to Financial Inclusion, Extracts from the 20th Lalith Doshi Memorial Lecture titled Finance and opportunity in India as reported in The Hindu of Aug. 12, 2014.

Rangarajan C (2011): Report on Financial Inclusion (