Fabrication and Mechanical Testing of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Matrix Composites Modified with Powdered Metallic Fillers

Jump To References Section


  • Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nitte (Deemed to be University), NMAM Institute of Technology (NMAMIT), Nitte, Udupi - 574110, Karnataka ,IN
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering, St Joseph Engineering College, Vamanjoor, Mangaluru - 575028, Karnataka ,IN
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nitte (Deemed to be University), NMAM Institute of Technology (NMAMIT), Nitte, Udupi - 574110, Karnataka ,IN
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering, Alva's Institute of Engineering and Technology, Moodbidri, Mangaluru – 574225, Karnataka ,IN
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering, Srinivas University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Mangaluru - 575001, Karnataka ,IN




Glass Fiber, Hand Lay Up, Mechanical Testing, Metallic Filler, Polymer Composite


Composite materials made up of polymer matrix reinforced with synthetic fibers have gained popularity of late owing to their enhanced mechanical properties. However, very little work is reported to date on metals being used as filler material. Research gaps were obtained pertaining to the use of metallic fillers in synthetic fiber reinforced polymer composites. This paper demonstrates an attempt to fabricate composites made of Epoxy polymer matrix and E-glass fiber reinforcement with Mild Steel in its powdered form as fillers. Composites are prepared in varying weight percentages of the filler in the order of 2 wt. %, 4 wt. % and 6 wt. %. Hand layup method is employed for fabricating these composites which are later subjected to compression. Further, the samples are machined according to ASTM D3039 standard for tensile test and ASTM D256 standard for Izod impact test. Hardness test is also performed using a Shore D Durometer and these properties are compared with the unfilled samples. The results indicated that the weight percentage of the filler clearly influenced the mechanical properties of the developed composites. This study also revealed that the hardness and tensile strength of these composites improved with the incorporation of fillers up to 2 wt. % whereas, the impact strength improved up to 4 wt. %. Thereafter, there was a decline in their impact and tensile properties. However, hardness marginally increased beyond 4 wt. %. This area is open for research with regard to their usability under tribological, high temperature or magnetic conditions.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




How to Cite

Kamath, B. R., Sudheer, M., Shetty, V., Kothari, D., & Prabhu, T. (2024). Fabrication and Mechanical Testing of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Matrix Composites Modified with Powdered Metallic Fillers. Journal of Mines, Metals and Fuels, 72(2), 103–109. https://doi.org/10.18311/jmmf/2024/42139
Received 2024-03-20
Accepted 2024-03-27
Published 2024-04-17



Gebrehiwet L, Abate E, Negussie Y, Teklehaymanot T, Abeselom E. Application of composite materials in aerospace and automotive industry:review. International Journal of Advances in Engineering and Management (IJAEM). 2023; 5(3):697-723. https://doi. org/10.35629/5252-0503697723

Murali B, Yogesh P, Karthickeyan NK, Chandramohan D. Multi-potency of bast fibers (flax, hemp and jute) as composite materials and their mechanical properties: A review. Materials Today: Proceedings. 2022; 62(4):1839- 43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2022.01.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2022.01.001

Dong T, Wu G, Peng H, Ma P. Mechanical performance of aramid/glass fiber hybrid weft-knitting-reinforced composites under low-velocity impact. Journal of Industrial Textiles. 2023; 53:1-33. https://doi. org/10.1177/15280837231190105 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/15280837231190105

Bachchan AA, Das PP, Chaudhary V. Effect of moisture absorption on the properties of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites: A review. Materials Today: Proceedings. 2022; 49(8):3403-8. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.02.812 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.02.812

Nabhan A, Taha M, Ghazaly NM. Filler loading effect of Al2O3/TiO2 nanoparticles on physical and mechanical characteristics of dental base composite (PMMA). Polymer Testing. 2023; 117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. polymertesting.2022.107848 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymertesting.2022.107848

Bednarowski D, Bazan P, Kuciel S. Enhancing strength and sustainability: evaluating glass and basalt fiber-reinforced biopolyamide as alternatives for petroleum-based polyamide composite. Polymers. 2023; 15. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15163400 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15163400

Bharadwaja K, Rao SS, Rao TB, Pydi HP. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties for epoxy resin in nano composite diffusion. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. 2023. https://doi.org/10.1155/2023/8598585 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2023/8598585

Parbin S, Waghmare NK, Singh SK, Khan S. Mechanical properties of natural fiber reinforced epoxy composites: A review. Procedia Computer Science. 2019; 152:375–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2019.05.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2019.05.003

Yadav R, Singh M, Shekhawat D, Lee SY, Park SJ. The role of fillers to enhance the mechanical, thermal, and wear characteristics of polymer composite materials: A review. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 2023; 175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. compositesa.2023.107775 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2023.107775

Boukhoulda A, Bendine K, Boukhoulda F, Bellali M. Effects of fibre weight fraction on the mechanical properties of bio-Composite reinforced with Alfa fibres: Experimental and numerical investigation. Journal of Composite Materials. 2024; 58(1):133-42. https://doi. org/10.1177/00219983231217076 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/00219983231217076

Nagrale A, Nevrekar S, Kawle S, Gawande H, Gupte J, Gaikwad S. Influence of filler particle sizes on the physical properties of bulk-fill composites compared to conventional composites. Cureus. 2023; 15(3). https:// doi.org/10.7759/cureus.36032 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.36032

Rout AK, Satapathy A. Development and characterization of rice husk-filled Glass fiber-reinforced Epoxy biocomposites. Composites: Mechanics, Computations, Applications. 2012; 3:95-106. https://doi.org/10.1615/ CompMechComputApplIntJ.v3.i2.10 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1615/CompMechComputApplIntJ.v3.i2.10

Mudradi S. Dry sliding wear behavior of cast iron powder filled epoxy composites. AIP Conference Proceedings. 2019; 020020-1–020020-6. https://doi. org/10.1063/1.5092903 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5092903

Bhavith K, Pai P, Sudheer M, Ramachandra CG, Prashanth BHM, Kumar BK. The effect of metal filler on the mechanical performance of epoxy resin composites. Engineering Proceedings. 2023; 59(1). https://doi. org/10.3390/engproc2023059200

Abdulkareem SA, Amosa MK, Adeniyi AG, Magaji MM, Ajibola RA. Effect of metallic fillers on the hardness of polystyrene composites: An experimental investigation. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757- 899X/640/1/012058 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/640/1/012058

Divya G, Suresha B. Role of Metallic Nanofillers on Mechanical and Tribological Behaviour of Carbon Fabric Reinforced Epoxy Composites. Materials Sciences and Applications. 2018; 9:740-750. https://doi.org/10.4236/ msa.2018.99054 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/msa.2018.99054

Ye TP, Liao SF, Zhang Y, Chen MJ, Xiao Y, Liu XY, Liu ZG, Wang DY. Cu(0) and Cu(II) decorated graphene hybrid on improving fireproof efficiency of intumescent flame-retardant epoxy resins. Composites Part B: Engineering. 2019; 175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. compositesb.2019.107189 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2019.107189

Suriani MJ, Sapuan SM, Ruzaidi CM, Nair DS, Ilyas RA. Flammability, morphological and mechanical properties of sugar palm fiber/polyester yarn-reinforced epoxy hybrid biocomposites with magnesium hydroxide flame retardant filler. Textile Research Journal. 2021; 91(21):2600-11. https://doi.org/10.1177/00405175211008615 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/00405175211008615

Ishak MR, Rafidah M, Razman MR. Polymer Composites Filled with Metal Derivatives: A Review of Flame Retardants. Polymers. 2021; 13(11):1701-21. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13111701 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13111701

Chopra R, Gupta RK, Kumar M, Akhtar N. Experimental study on mechanical properties of E-Glass fiber reinforced with epoxy resin composite and compare its properties with hybrid composite. Materials Today: Proceedings. 2022; 63:417-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. matpr.2022.03.435 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2022.03.435