Influence of Vitamin D on Ethanol Induced Retinal Changes in Experimental Rats

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  • Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka ,IN
  • Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka ,IN
  • Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka ,IN
  • Department of Anatomy, American University of Antigua College of Medicine, Coolidge, P.O. Box 1451, Antigua ,AG
  • Department of Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka ,IN



Ethanol, Retina, Toxicity, Vitamin D


Retina is a neurosensory tissue of ocular system having highly unique lipids which are susceptible to free radical injuries. Chronic ethanol consumption can initiate a wide range of disorders in the CNS and also alteration in the visual system via oxidative pathway. Our study was designed to evaluate the role of vitamin D, a well-known antioxidant and neuroprotective steroid hormone, in the maintenance of ocular health in ethanol induced toxicity. In our present study 4 months old Wistar rats were exposed to ethanol, daily for 6 weeks, while another set of rats received ethanol daily, along with vitamin D for the same duration. A control group consisting of normal rats without any treatment was also included in this experiment. After 6 weeks, Total Anti-Oxidant (TAO) level of eyeball and retinal thickness was measured and statistically analyzed. We observed significantly decreased total antioxidant level in whole eye homogenate in ethanol administered rats which was associated with morphometric changes in the retina. Whereas, vitamin D treated rats showed near to normal retinal morphology as well as TAO level suggesting that vitamin D has the potential to reverse retinal damages caused by ethanol toxicity induced by long term consumption of it.


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How to Cite

Arunachalam, D., Rai, A. R., Rai, R., Joy, T., & Nayak, S. (2022). Influence of Vitamin D on Ethanol Induced Retinal Changes in Experimental Rats. Toxicology International, 29(1), 65–74.



Original Research
Received 2021-06-15
Accepted 2021-09-25
Published 2022-05-20



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