Chemical Composition and Evaluation of Methanol Leaf Extract of <i>Combretum dolichopetalum</i> on Body Weights and Haematological Indices of Phenylhydrazine Induced-anaemic Rats
Keywords:Anaemia, <i>Combretum dolichopetalum</i>, Haematological Parameters, Mineral Elements, Phytochemicals, Proximate Compositions
AbstractAnaemia is a serious health challenge in developing countries. This study evaluated the chemical composition of Combretum dolichopetalum (CD) leaves, the effect of its methanol extract on the body weights and haematological indices of phenylhydrazine induced-anaemic rats. Fresh matured leaves of CD were collected, identified and authenticated. Phytochemicals, proximate compositions, mineral elements, anti-nutritional factors and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis were determined. A total number of twenty (20) mature inbred apparently healthy male albino rats of the Wistar strain (100-150 g) were used for this study. Anaemia was induced by administering phenylhydrazine to rats in Groups 2, 3 and 4 comprising of five rats per group. Group 1 (non-anaemic control) (n = 5) and Group 2 (anaemic control) received distilled water respectively while Groups 3 and 4 were administered 200 and 400 mg/kg of CD leaf extract orally using oropharyngeal cannula once per day for 28 days. Blood samples were obtained for haematological analysis using standard methods. The result showed a significant increase in Red Blood Cell (RBC), Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and haemoglobin concentration in Groups 3 and 4 compared with the anaemic group. Chemical analysis showed the presence of some phytochemicals, proximate compositions, mineral elements and anti-nutritional factors. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of nine (9) compounds. This study indicates that CD is nutritionally rich and contains some important bioactive principles that support its anti-anaemic properties.
World Health Organization. Global targets 2025. To improve maternal, infant and young child nutrition; 2014.
Kanfer EJ, Nicol BA. Haemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in primary care patients. J R Soc Med. 1997; 90:16–8. PMid: 9059375 PMCid: PMC1296109. https://doi.org/10.1177/014107689709000106
Stevens G, Finucane M, De-Regil L, Paciorek C, Flaxman S, Branca F. Nutrition impact model study group (Anaemia). Global, regional, and national trends in haemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anaemia in children and pregnant and nonpregnant women for 1995-2011: A systematic analysis of population-representative data. Lancet Global Health. 2013; 1(1):e16–e25. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(13)70001-9
Ogbe RJ, Adoga GI, Abu AH. Antianaemic potentials of some plant extracts on phenyl hydrazine-induced Anaemia in rabbits. J Med. Plant Res. 2010; 4(8):680– 4.
Marshin G, Dirya B, Revina AM, Hipolith V, Kalaicheivan VK, Palaniel V. Anti-ulcer activity of Ficusreligiosa leaf ethanolic extract. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013; 3(7):554–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60112-4
Alada A. The hematological effect of Telfelria occidentalis diet preparation. Afr J Biomed Res. 2000; 3(3):185–6.
Emelike CU, Dapper DV. Effects of oral administration of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa on some haematological parameters of Wistar albino rats. IOSR-JDMS. 2013; 9(1):31–4. https://doi.org/10.9790/0853-0913134
Uzor PF, Osadebe PO, Omeje EO, Agbo MO. Bioassay guided isolation and evaluation of the antidiabetic principles of Combretum dolichopetalum root. BJPR. 2014; 4:2155–71. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJPR/2014/9143
Ujowundu FN, Ukoha AI, Ojiako AO, Nwaoguikpe RN. Nutritional characterization of Combretum dolichopetalum Leaves. Biochem Anal Biochem. 2015; 4:232.
Barku VYA, Boahen O, Dali G. Ethnobotanical study of wound healing plants in kpando traditional area, Ghana. Inter J Phytomed. 2014; (6):564–72.
Ameyaw Y, Barku VYA, Ayivor J, Forson A. Phytochemical screening of some indigenous medicinal plant species used in the management of diabetes mellitus in Ghana. J Med Plants Res. 2012; 6:4573–81. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR12.564
Emelike CU, Anyaehie USB, IyareEE, Obike CA, Eleazu CO, Chukwuma C. Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies on Combretum dolichopetalum Engl. and Diels leaves. Slov Vet Res. 2020; 57(3):105–14. https://doi.org/10.26873/SVR-899-2020
Eleazu CO, Eleazu KC, Awa E, Chukwuma SC. Comparative study of the phytochemical composition of the leaves of five Nigerian medicinal plants. EJBPR. 2012; 3(2):42–6.
Ezhilan BP, Neelamegam R. GC-MS analysis of phytocomponents in the ethanol extract of Polygonum chinense L. Phcog Res. 2012; 4:11–4. PMid: 22224055 PMCid: PMC3250032. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974- 8490.91028
Jensen WB. The origin of Soxhlex Extractor. J Chem Educ. 2007; 84(12):1913–4. https://doi.org/10.1021/ ed084p1913
Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods. London: Chapman and Hall, Ltd.; 1973. p. 113.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Animal Feed. Official Methods of Analysis, VI, USA.1990.
Boham AB, Kocipai AC. Flavonoid and condensed tannins from leaves of Hawaiian Caccininum reticulatum and V. calycinum (Ericaceae). Pac Sci. 1994; 48:458–63.
Sofowora A. Medicinal plants and traditional medicinal in Africa. 2nd Ed. Sunshine House, Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum Books Ltd. Screening Plants for Bioactive Agents.1993; 134–56.
Ferguson NM. A text book of Pharmacognosy. New Delhi: Mac Milan Company; 1956. p. 191.
Thompson DB, Erdman JW. Phytic acid determination in soybeans. J Food Sci. 1982; 47:513–51. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1982.tb10114.x
Nile SH, Park SW. Bioavailability analysis of oxalate and mineral content in selected edible mushrooms. J Nutr Disorders Ther. 2014; 4:138.
Onwuka GI. Food analysis and instrumentation. Theory and practice. Lagos: Napthali Prints; 2005.
Igwe KK, Nwankwo PO, Otuokere IE, Chika I, Amaku FJ. Studies on the medicinal plant Acalypha wilkesiana ethanol extract phytocomponents by GC-MS analysis. GJSFR. 2016; 16(2):48–55.
Otuokere IE, Amaku AJ, Igwe KK, Chinedum GC. Medicinal studies on the phytochemical constituents of Justicia carneaby GC-MS analysis. American J Food Sci Health. 2016; 2(4):71–7.
Ochei J, Kolkhtar A. Medical laboratory science, theory and practice. Bulakh PM and Deshmukh S. eds. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill publishing Company Limited; 2000.
Jin-Jan L, Jiao-Lin B, Xia-Ping C, Min K, Yi-Tao W. Alkaloids isolated from natural herbs as anticancer agents. eCAM. 2012. p. 12. PMid: 22988474 PMCid: PMC3440018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/485042
Ankur J, Deepanshu G, Priyanka S, Sapna M, Deenanath J, Anil K. Anti-anemic activity of hydro-alcohol leaf extract of Tamarindus indica in phenylhydrazine induced anemic rats. J Harmoniz Res Appl. 2017; 5(3):132–5.
Huang Q, Lu G, Shan HM, Chung MC, Ong CN. Anticancer properties of anthraquinones from rhubarb. Med Res Rev. 2007; 27(5):609–30. PMid: 17022020. https://doi.org/10.1002/med.20094
Kumar M, Manish KG, Anit S, Goel RJ. Healing effects of Musa sapientum var. Paradisiacal in diabetic rats with co-occurring gastric ulcer, cytokines and growth factor by PCR amplification. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013; 13:305. PMid: 24192345 PMCid: PMC3826524. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-13- 305
Trease GE, Evans EC. A textbook of Pharmacognosy. 13th Ed. Bailliere Tindall, Britain: English Language Book Society; 1985; 386–480.
Lee HH, Loh SP, Bong CFJ, Sarbini SR, Yiu PH. Impact of phytic acid on nutrient bioaccessibility and antioxidant properties of dehusked rice. J Food Sci Technol. 2015; 52 (12): 7806–6. PMid: 26604353 PMCid: PMC4648857. https://doi.org/10.1007/s1319 7-015-1918-9
Eleazu CO, Eleazu KC. Nutrient composition, antioxidant capacity and natural products in Livingstone potato (Plectranthus esculentus). J Food Process Preserv. 2015; 39:3050–8. https://doi. org/10.1111/jfpp.12570
Antoine JMR, Fung LAH, Grant CN, Dennis HT, Lalor GC. Dietary intake of minerals and trace elements in rice on the Jamaican market. J Food Comp Anal. 2012; 26:111–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2012.01.003
Vasudevan DM, Sreekumari S, Vaidyanathan K. Textbook of biochemistry for medical students, 6th ed., New Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Pvt. Ltd; 2011.
Rose M, Knaggs M, Owen L, Baxter M. A review of the analytical methods for lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic and tin determination used in proficiency testing. J Anal Atomic Spect. 2001; 16:1101–6. https://doi.org/10.1039/b102839c
Erika R. Mechanism of action of anticancer drugs. Dan Granders group; 2015.
Dakshayini C, Devaraju K. Synthesis and biological screening of analogs of aryl tetralone. IAJPR. 2017; 7(1):7392–8.
Denger K, Mayer J, Hollemyer K, Cook AM. Amphoteric surfactant N-oleoyl-N-methyltaurine utilized by Pseudomonas alcaligenes with excretion of N-methyltaurine. FEMS Microbiol Letters. 2008; 288 (1):112–7. PMid: 18783436. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2008.01341.x
Janakiraman N, Johnson M, Sahaya SS. GC-MS analysis of bioactive constituents of Peristrophe bicalyculata (Retz.) Nees. (Acanthaceae). Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012; S46–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60128-2
Marcela, CA, Neila MSB, Paula MV, Thiago MG, Martha OG, Vera MP, Denia AS. Acute and sub chronic toxicity study of aqueous extract from the leaves and branches of Campomanesia velutina (Cambess) O. Berg. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017; 201:17–25. PMid: 28254483. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.02.043