Effect of Valproic Acid on Morphology and Behavior of Hydra viridissima: Possibility of using Hydra for Screening Neuromodulators

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Battery Cell Complex, Chloro Hydra, Cnidarians


Nervous system of Hydra responds to mechanical, chemical, light and temperature stimuli, despite lack of organizational complexities like ganglion or sense organs. Nerve net of Hydrashows remarkable similarities with vertebrates at cellular and molecular level. Chemical and electrical synapses of Hydramodulate array of behavioral responses exhibited by Hydra. We have assayed toxicity and tested effect of Valproic Acid (VPA), an anti-epileptic drug on Hydra. We have performed whole animal toxicity testing, cytological staining using toluidine blue and assayed feeding behavior post VPA treatment. We conclude mild toxicity and loss of cell organization pattern in tentacles of Hydraupon prolonged VPA exposure. Our results indicate the possibility of using invertebrates like Hydrafor screening of chemical modulators of molecular pathways.


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Alphonso, S., Pandit, P., Ramachandran, H., & Kulkarni, A. (2019). Effect of Valproic Acid on Morphology and Behavior of <i>Hydra viridissima</i>: Possibility of using Hydra</i> for Screening Neuromodulators. Toxicology International, 25(2), 116–123. https://doi.org/10.18311/ti/2018/v25i2/23086



Original Research
Received 2019-01-01
Accepted 2019-01-21
Published 2019-07-19



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