Effects of <i>Anogeissus leiocarpus</i> Root Barks on Rat Liver, Kidney and Haematological Parameters
Keywords:Anogeissus leiocarpus, Combretaceae, Haematology, Liver, Kidney, Toxicity
AbstractThis study investigated the safety of aqueous root bark extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill and Perr. in albino rats. Male rats were orally administered the extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight) for a seven-day period. Malondialdehyde concentration and enzyme activities were monitored in liver and kidney as well as haematological, hepatic and renal function parameters. Administration of the extract significantly (p < 0.05) altered liver and serum enzymes, decreased liver and kidney malondialdehyde, increased serum total protein, altered serum bilirubin (total and conjugated) and increased serum urea, sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate ions. In contrast, the extract did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect kidney alkaline phosphatase activity, serum albumin, creatinine, and haematological parameters. Overall, the findings in this study revealed that the extract is not completely safe at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight when consumed repeatedly for a seven-day period, though the adverse effects were mild, selective and not systemic.
Kayode, J, Omotoyibo, MA. Ethnobotanical utilization and conservation of chewing sticks plants species in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Botany. 2009; 4(1): 1–9.https://doi.org/10.3923/rjb.2009.1.9
Mann, A, Banso, A, Clifford, LC. An antifungal of crude plant extracts from Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennioides. Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2008; 10(1):34–8. https://doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v10i1.14339.PMid:18680963
Mann, A, Yahaya, Y, Banso, A, Ajayi, GO. Phytochemical and antibacterial screening of Anogeissus leiocarpus againstsome microorganisms associated with infectious wounds.African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2008; 2:60–2.
Mann, A, Barnabas, BB, Daniel, II. The effect of methanolic extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennioides on the growth of some food-borne microorganisms. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2010; 4(12):6041–5.
Wurochekke, AU, Anyanwu, GO. Antitrypanosomal activity of Anogeissus leiocarpus in rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. International Research Journal of Biotechnology. 2010; 3(1):5–9.
Salau, AK, Yakubu, MT, Oladiji, AT. Cytotoxic activity of aqueous extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennioides root barks against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cells. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2013; 45(4):381–5. https://doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.115023.PMid:24014915. PMCid:PMC3757608
Salau, AK, Yakubu, MT, Oladiji, AT. Hepatoprotective effects of aqueous root bark extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia avicennioides, and their mixture in diethylnitrosamine-treated rats. Drug Dev Ther. 2015; 6(2):93–100. https://doi.org/10.4103/2394-6555.162454
Salau, AK, Yakubu, MT, Oladiji, AT. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC) Guill & Perr and Terminalia Avicennioides Guill & Perr root barks. Cameroon J Biol Biochem Sci.2015; 23:9–16.
Salau, AK, Yakubu, MT, Oladiji, AT. Effects of aqueous root bark extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC) Guill & Perr and Terminalia avicennioides Guill & Perr on redox and haematological parameters of diethylnitrosamineadministered rats. Iranian Journal of Toxicology. 2016;10(1):21–9.
Arbab, AH. Review on Anogeissus leiocarpus a potent African traditional drug. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 2014; 4(3):496–500.
National Institutes of Health. Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. NIH Publication. 1985; 83:127–38.
Gornall, AC, Bardawill, CJ, David, MM. Determination of serum protein by means of Biuret reaction. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1949; 177:751–6. PMid:18110453
Wright, PJ, Leathwood, PD, Plummer, DT. Enzymes in rat urine: alkaline phosphatase. Enzymologia. 1972; 42:317– 27. PMid:4337755
Reitman, S, Frankel, SA. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum GOT and GPT. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1957; 28:56–63. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/28.1.56. PMid:13458125
Rosalki, SB, Tarlow, D. Optimised determination of Î³-glutamyl transferase by reaction rate analysis. Clinical Chemistry. 1974; 20:1121–4. PMid:4153424
Buege, JA, Aust, SD. Microsomal lipid peroxidation.Methods in Enzymology. 1978; 52:302–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(78)52032-6
Evelyn, KA, Malloy, HT. Micro determination of oxyhaemoblobin, methaemoglobin and sulphaemoglobin in a single sample of blood. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1938; 126:655–61.
Doumas, BT, Watson, WA, Biggs, HG. Albumin standards and measurement of serum albumin with bromocresol green. Clinica Chimica Acta. 1971; 31:87–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-8981(71)90365-2
Blass, KG, Thierbert, RJ, Lam, LK. A study of the mechanism of the Jaffe reaction. Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry. 1974; 12:336–43. https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm.1922.214.171.1246
Veniamin, MP, Vakirtzi, C. Chemical basis of the carbamido diacetyl micromethod for estimation of urea, citrulline and carbamyl derivatives. Clinical Chemistry. 1970; 16:3–6. PMid:5414120
Tietz, NW. Clinical guide to laboratory tests. 3rd ed; 1995.PMCid:PMC228439
Akanji, MA, Olagoke, OA, Oloyede, OB. Effect of chronic consumption of metabisulphite on the integrity of the rat kidney cellular system. Toxicology. 1993; 81:173–9. https:// doi.org/10.1016/0300-483X(93)90010-P
Mayne, PD. Clinical chemistry in diagnosis and treatment.6th ed. Lloyd - Luke Medical Books Ltd; 2005.
Brain, RT, Kay, HD. Kidney phosphatase II: The enzyme in disease. Biochemical Journal. 1927; 21:1101–8. https://doi. org/10.1042/bj0211104
Wright, PJ, Plummer, DT. The use of urinary enzyme measurement to detect renal damages caused by nephrotoxic compounds. Biochemical Pharmacology. 1974; 12:65–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(74)90314-1
Akanji, MA, Nlumanze, SE. Alkaline phosphatase activities following repeated suramin administration in some rat tissues in relation to their functions. Pharmacology & Toxicology. 1987; 61(3):182–3. https://doi.
Umezawa, H, Hooper, IR. Aminoglycoside antibiotic. Springer Verk Berlin, Hadelberg, New York; 1982. https:// doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-68579-8
Yakubu, MT, Bilbis, LS, Lawal, M, Akanji, MA. Effect of repeated administration of sildenafil citrate on selected enzyme activities of liver and kidney of male albino rats. Nigerian Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2003; 18:1395–400.
Akanji, MA, Salau, AK, Yakubu, MT. Safety evaluation of aqueous extract of Crateva adansonii leaves on selected tissues of rats. Fountain Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences. 2013; 2(1):17– 28.30. Yakubu, MT, Adeshina, AO, Ibrahim, OOK. Toxicological evaluation of aqueous leaf extract of Senna alata in pregnant Wistar rats. International Journal of Current Research and Review. 2012; 4(8):89–109.
Rafelson, ME, Hayashi, JD, Beckoro-Vainy, A. Basic biochemistry. 4th ed. Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc., New York; 1980. PMid:7387709
Yakubu, MT, Musa, IF. Liver and kidney functional indices of pregnant rats following the administration of the crude alkaloids from Senna alata (Linn. Roxb) leaves. Iranian Journal of Toxicology. 2012; 6(16):615–25.
Chukwudi, NH, Simeon, O, Chinyere, AJ. Analysis of some biochemical and haematological parameters for Mucuna pruriens (DC) seed powder in male rats. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 24(4):523–6.PMid:21959815
Yakubu, MT, Bilbis, LS, Lawal, M, Akanji, MA. Evaluation of selected parameters of rat kidney function following repeated administration of Yohimbine. Biokemistri. 2003; 15(2):50–6.
Salau, AK, Yakubu, MT, Oluleye, DS, Oloyede, OB, Akanji, MA. Toxicological evaluation of aqueous leaf extract of Ficus exasperata on selected tissues of normal Wistar rats. Centrepoint J (Science Edition). 2012; 18(2):47–56.
Bate-Smith, EA, Swain, FW. Flavonoid compounds. Florkin M, Mason, HS, editors. Comparative biochemistry, New York: Academic Press. 1962; vol 3:75–809.
Shidelar, H. Yucca-the food supplement that helps prevent and treat arthritis and high blood pressure. Arthritis News Today. 1980; 2:6.
Abou-Donia, MB, Elmasry, EM, Abu-Qare, AW.Metabolism and toxicokinetics of xenobiotics. Derelanko, MJ, Hollinger, MA, editors. Handbook of toxicology, 4th ed, Florida: CRC Press LLC; 2002.
Chanchay, N, Poosaran, N. The reduction of mimosine and tannin contents in leaves of Leucaena leucocephala.Asian Journal Of Food & Agro-industry. 2009; Special Issue:S137–44.