Genetic Diversity of Pinus Roxburghii Sarg. Collected from Different Himalayan Regions of India Assessed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis



Genetic diversity, Himalayan region, Pinus roxburghii, random amplified polymorphic DNA


Present study was aimed at molecular genetic fingerprint profile of 15 genotypes of three populations of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. from Himalayan regions of India using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) based markers. Needles of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were collected from Dharamshala, Himachal Pradesh (HP), Nainital, Uttarakhand (UK) and Darjeeling, West Bengal (WB) regions of India. The samples were subjected to DNA extraction and RAPD analysis using oligonucleotide purification cartridge (OPC) primers. Out of 15 primers tested, nine primers gave scorable bands. Altogether 48 bands were obtained, out of which 43 were found to be polymorphic. Number of amplified fragments with RAPD primers ranged from four to eight with the size of amplicon ranging from 500 to 7,000bp. Investigation of natural diversity at intraspecies level was performed with 15 genotypes. Forty"‘eight amplification products were scored by RAPD and showed 89.58% polymorphism with a mean intrapopulation genetic diversity (Hpop) of 0.2754. A significant inter"‘ and intrapopulation diversity was observed, with the percentage of polymorphic loci (Pp) ranging from 50.09 to 70.83%, Shannon's information index (I) from 0.3262 to 0.4689 and Nei's gene diversity (h) from 0.2032 to 0.3335 with mean Nei's gene diversity 0.377 and the overall estimate of gene flow being (Nm) 1.3555. Unweighted pair"‘group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) analysis based Dendrogram showed single cluster. The variation amongst the samples of the three ecological regions can be attributed to varied climatic conditions and may help in conservation/future cultivation of these species.


Download data is not yet available.


Siddiqui MF, Ahmed M, Wahab M, Khan N, Khan MU, Nazim K, et al. Phytosociology of Pinus roxburghii Sargeant. (Chir Pine) in lesser Himalayan and Hindukush range of Pakistan. Pak J Bot 2009;41:2357"‘69.

Murad W, Ahmed A, Gilani SA, Khan MA. Indigenous knowledge and folk use of medicinal plants by the tribal communities of Hazar Nao Forest, Malakand District, North Pakistan. J Med Plant Res 2011;5:1072"‘86.

Puri A, Srivastava AK, Singhal B, Mishra SK, Lakshmi V.Antidyslipidemic and antioxidant activity of Pinus roxburghii needles. Med Chem Res 2010;20:1589"‘93.

Marquardt PE, Echt CS, Epperson BK, Pubanz DM. Genetic structure, diversity and inbreeding of eastern white pine under different management conditions. Can J For Res 2007;37:2652"‘62.

Narain P. Genetic diversity"‘conservation and assessment. Curr Sci 2000;79:170"‘5.

Kant AK, Pattanayak D, Chakrabarti SK, Sharma R, Thakur M, Sharma DR. RAPD analysis of genetic variability of Pinus gerardiana wall in Kinnaur (Himachal Pradesh). Indian J Biotechnol 2006;5:62"‘7.

DeVerno LL, Mosseler A. Genetic variation in red pine (Pinus resinosa) revealed by RAPD and RAPD"‘RFLP analysis. Can J For Res 1997;27:1316"‘20.

Ghildiyal SK, Sharma CM, Gairola S. Additive genetic variation in seedling growth and biomass of fourteen Pinus roxburghii provenances from Garhwal Himalayas. Indian J Sci Technol 2009;2:37"‘45.

Gildhiyal SK, Sharma CM, Gairola S. Environmental variation and seed and seedling characteristics of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. from Uttarakhand, India. Appl Ecol Environ Res 2009;7:121"‘9.

Gauli A, Gailing O, Stefenon VM, Finkeldey R. Genetic similiarity of natural populations and plantations of Pinus roxburghii Nepal. Ann For Sci 2009;66:703"‘10.

Irshad S, Singh J, Kakkar P, Mehrotra S. Molecular characterization of desmodium species"‘"‘an important ingredient of ‘Dashmoola' by RAPD analysis. Fitoterapia 2009;80:115"‘8.

Lynch M, Milligan BG. Analysis of population structure with RAPD markers. Mol Ecol 1994;3:91"‘9.

Kimura M, Crow JF. The number of alleles that can be maintained in a finite population. Genetics 1964;49:725"‘38.

Nei M. Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1973;70:3321"‘3.

Lewontin RC. The apportionment of human diversity. Evol Biol 1972;6:381"‘98.

Yeh FC, Boyle T, Ye Z and Xiyan JM. POPGENE Version 1.31: Microsoft Windows"‘based freeware for population genetic analysis. University of Alberta and Center for International Forestry Research 1999.

Bakshi M, Konnert M. Genetic diversity and differentiation through isozymes in natural populations of Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jacks (Blue Pine) in India. Ann For Res 2011;54:23"‘7.

Sáenz"‘Romero C, Beaulieu J, Rehfeldt GE. Altitudinal genetic variation among Pinus patula populations from Oaxaca, México,in growth chambers simulating global warming temperatures.Agrociencia 2011;45:399"‘411.

Hamrick JL, Godt MJ, Sherman"‘Bryoles SL. Factors influencing levels of genetic diversity in woody plant species. New Forests 1992;6:95"‘124.

Yi WZ, Raven PH. Flora of China. Vol. 4., Science Press, St. Louis, Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing; 1999.

Soliman MH, Gad Meravat MA, Hussein HM, Mohamed AS.Biochemical and molecular genetic evaluation of some conifer genetic resources. J Am Sci 2010;6:1498"‘509.

Newton AC, Allnutt TR, Dvorak WS, Del Castillo RF, Ennos RA.Patterns of genetic variation in Pinus chiapensis, a threatened Mexican pine, detected by RAPD and mitochondrial DNA RFLP markers. Heredity (Edinb) 2002;89:191"‘8.

Robledo"‘Arnuncio JJ. Wind pollination over mesoscale distances: An investigation with Scots pine. New Phytol 2011;190:222"‘33.

Hamrick JL, Godt MJW. Effects of life history traits on genetic diversity in plant species. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 1996;351:1291"‘8.



How to Cite

Sinha, D., Singh, J., Tandon, P. K., & Kakkar, P. (2018). Genetic Diversity of Pinus Roxburghii Sarg. Collected from Different Himalayan Regions of India Assessed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis. Toxicology International, 20(3), 208–213. Retrieved from



Original Research