Assessment of Mycotoxin Exposure in Cí´te d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Through Multi"‘Biomarker Analysis and Possible Correlation with Food Consumption Patterns

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  • Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Jean Lorougnon Guédé University, Daloa ,CI
  • Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA), National Research Council of Italy, Bari ,IT
  • Department of Epidemiology, Pasteur Institute of Cí´te d'Ivoire, Paris ,FR
  • Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, Nangui Abrogoua University, Abidjan ,CI
  • Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA), National Research Council of Italy, Bari ,FR


Human exposure, Ivory Coast, mycotoxins, multi"‘biomarker, maize"‘foods


Scope: The aim of the presented study was to investigate the mycotoxin exposure of Ivorian population related to the consumption patterns of maize, peanuts, millet, and cassava product (attiéké). Materials and Methods: Maize flour samples (n = 51) were purchased from all Abidjan local markets, in the south of Ivory Coast, and urine (n = 99) was collected during the same reference period (July–September 2011) from volunteers living in Abidjan and Daloa cities. Reversed"‘phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC"‘ESI"‘MS/MS) was used to analyze aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FB1, FB2), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), and T"‘2 and HT"‘2 toxins in maize flour samples, and their relevant biomarkers (AFM1, DON, DON + de"‘epoxydeoxynivalenol (DOM"‘1), FB1, α"‘zearalenol (ZOL), β"‘ZOL, and OTA) in urine samples. Results: Critical maize contamination was observed by AFs occurrence (total AFs 4.5 – 330.0 μg/kg) while OTA was found in 13% of samples analyzed. AFM1 was detected in 40% of urines samples (0.06 – 14.11 ng/ml), OTA in 37% (0.01 – 0.42 ng/ml), FB1 in 27% (0.07 to 15.31 ng/ml) and, DON was found in 21% of samples at levels up to 10.0 ng/ml. The correlation coefficients (R2) obtained by plotting the percentage of biomarker occurrence (positive samples) versus the frequency of food consumption revealed maize, peanuts, millet and attiéké were strongly linked to AFB1 and OTA exposure with values of R2 ranged from 0.462 to 0.956. Conclusion: The present study provided data on mycotoxin risk in Ivory Coast, revealing a frequent co"‘exposure to the major mycotoxins such as AFs, OTA, and fumonisins, which appeared to be related to the frequency of peanuts, maize, millet and attiéké consumption.


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Kouadio, J. H., Lattanzio, V. M. T., Ouattara, D., Kouakou, B., & Visconti, A. (2018). Assessment of Mycotoxin Exposure in Cí´te d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Through Multi"‘Biomarker Analysis and Possible Correlation with Food Consumption Patterns. Toxicology International, 21(3), 248–257. Retrieved from



Original Research
Received 2018-05-31
Accepted 2018-05-31
Published 2018-06-04



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