Tobacco Dust Induced Genotoxicity as an Occupational Hazard in Workers of Bidi Making Cottage Industry of Central India

Authors

Keywords:

Chromosome aberration, comet assay, genotoxicity in bidi rollers, MTT assay, tobacco dust

Abstract

Context: To explore genotoxicity in bidi rollers occupationally exposed to bidi tobacco dust. Aims: To assess the extent of genotoxicity of tobacco dust to bidi rollers of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India and cytotoxicity of bidi tobacco extract. Settings and Design: Blood samples from 31 bidi rollers and 30 controls taken after written informed consent were analyzed for chromosome aberrations (CA) and comet assay. Materials and Methods: Genotoxicity was studied by CA in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes of bidi rollers and the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage studies were done by comet assay of their blood. The toxicity of bidi tobacco extract to normal human lymphocytes was studied by MMT (3"‘[4,5"‘dimethylthiazol"‘2"‘yl]"‘2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay as drop in viability. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t"‘test and DMRT. Results: There is a general trend of increase in CA% of both in exposed and control groups with age, but in every group the bidi rollers have a significantly higher CA% than the controls. The CA % is also directly related to exposure. The comet assay findings reveal that the mean comet length and tail length increases with exposure time. The toxicity of bidi tobacco extract (TE) to normal human lymphocytes was tested in vitro by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay at 2 h of incubation. The trend of drop in viability with increasing concentrations of TE was clearly evident from the data from four donors in spite of their individual differences in viability. Conclusions: The results obtained in this investigation indicate that bidi rollers seem to be facing the occupational hazard of genotoxicity due to handling bidi tobacco and inhalation of tobacco dust. They should be advised to work under well"‘ventilated conditions.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Karabi MM, Bhavna MB. Tobacco and poverty research and capacity building: Narrative Report. Organization: Voluntary Health Association of India, New Delhi, India; 2010.

Mahimkar MB, Bhisey RA. Occupational exposure to bidi tobacco increases chromosomal aberrations in tobacco processors. Mutat Res 1995;334:139"‘44.

Umadevi B, Swama M, Padmavathi P, Jyothi A, Reddy PP. Cytogenetic effects in workers occupationally exposed to tobacco dust. Mutat Res 2003;535:147"‘54.

Haber H, Raber W, Vetter N. Bronchial asthmatic disease associated with tobacco dust: An occupational lung disease. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2004;116:38"‘9.

Uitti J, Nordam H, Huuskonen MS, Roto P, Husman K, Reiman M, et al. Respiratory health of cigar factory workers. Occup Environ Med 1998;5:834"‘9.

Bhisey RA, Bagwe AN, Mahimkar MB, Buch SC. Biological monitoring of bidi industry workers occupationally exposed to tobacco. Toxicol Lett 1999;108:259"‘65.

Poonam P, Khanna A, Jain SK. Evaluation of genotoxicity in Bidi Rollers occupationally exposed to tobacco dust. National J Life Sci 2010;7:89"‘93.

Bhisey RA, Govekar RB. Biological monitoring of bidi rollers with respect to genotoxic hazards of occupational tobacco exposure. Mutat Res 1991;261:139"‘47.

Moorhead PS, Nowell PC, Mellman WJ, Battips DM, Hunderford A. Chromosome preparations of leucocytes cultured from human peripheral blood. Exp Cell Res 1960;20:613"‘6.

Singh NP, McCoy MT, Tice RR, Schneider EL. A simple technique for quantitation of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells. Exp Cell Res 1988;175:184"‘91.

Sheldon JM, Lowel RG, Mathews KP. Manual of clinical allergy. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1967. p. 507"‘31.

Gao XP, Akhter SR, Ikezaki H, Hong D, Rubinstein I. Dexamethasone attenuates acute macromolecular efflux increase evoked by smokeless tobacco extract. J Appl Physiol 1999;87:619"‘25.

Yadav JS, Thakur S. Cytogenetic damage in bidi smokers. Nicotine Tob Res 2000;2:97"‘103.

Nordic study group on the health risk of chromosome damage. A Nordic database on somatic chromosome damage in humans. Mutat Res 1990;241:325"‘37.

Kopjar N, Zeljezic D, Garaj-Vrhovac V. Evaluation of DNA damage in white blood cells of healthy human volunteers using the alkaline comet assay and the chromosome aberration test. Acta Biochim Pol 2006;53:321-36.

Battershill JM, Burnett K, Bull S. Factors affecting the incidence of genotoxicity biomarkers in peripheral blood lymphocytes: Impact on design of biomonitoring studies. Mutagenesis 2008;23:423"‘37.

Patel BP, Trivedi PJ, Brahmbhatt MM, Shukla SN, Shah PM, Bakshi SR, et al. Micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in healthy tobacco chewers and controls: A study from Gujrat, India.

Arch 2009;17:1"‘2. Available from: http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/ img/doi/0354-7310/2009/0354-73100902007P.pdf. [Accessed on 2013 Sept 24].

Chadda P, Yadav JS. Studies on the Genotoxicity of Gutkha. Genet 2011;11:277"‘82.

Vera GV, Goran G, Vlatka B. Alkaline comet assay as a biomarker of DNA"‘damage encountered in workers engaged in cigarette manufacturing. Periodicum Biologorum 2009;111:85"‘90.

Shukla P, Khanna A, Jain SK. Working condition: A key factor in increasing occupational hazard among bidi rollers: A population health research with respect to DNA damage. Indian J Occup Environ Med 2011;15:139"‘41.

Richter PA, Li AP, Polzin G, Roy SK. Cytotoxicity of eight cigarette smoke condensates in three test systems: Comparisons between assays and condensates. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2010;58:428-36.

Published

2018-04-25

How to Cite

Khanna, A., Shankar Gautam, D., Gokhale, M., & Kumar Jain, S. (2018). Tobacco Dust Induced Genotoxicity as an Occupational Hazard in Workers of Bidi Making Cottage Industry of Central India. Toxicology International, 21(1), 18–23. Retrieved from https://www.informaticsjournals.com/index.php/toxi/article/view/20954

Issue

Section

Original Research