Analysis of Proximate, Functional, and Mineral Composition in Processed Black Rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) Flours: A Comparative Exploration

Jump To References Section


  • Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Periyar University, Salem - 636011, Tamil Nadu ,IN
  • Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Periyar University, Salem - 636011, Tamil Nadu ,IN



Black Rice, Functional, Mineral, Proximate, Roasting, Soaking


Black rice is utilised to make successful nutraceutical food products because of its high nutrient content. This study sought to determine the proximate compositions, functional compositions, and mineral compositions of processed black rice flour based on different processing methods (Raw, Soaked, and Roasted). The analytical procedures for the processed flours were designed using the standard methodology. The proximate analysis of processed black rice flour revealed a differentiation at (p<0.01) in every parameter except the moisture content of raw and soaked flour. The functional properties of processed black rice flour range from 1.0 to 1.17 g/g for water absorption capacity, 2.21 to 2.43 g/g for oil absorption, and 1.8 to 2.2% for foaming capacity, with raw, soaking, and roasted black rice flour viscosities being 986.0 cP, 997.0 cP, and 951.0 cP, respectively. Bulk density ranged from 1.77 to 1.82 g/cm3. Compared to other processed flours, raw black rice flour greatly showed increased oil absorption and foaming capacity, whereas soaked black rice flour dramatically increased viscosity and bulk density. Raw black rice flour exhibited the highest composition of minerals (phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron) followed by soaked and roasted flours (p<0.01). The roasted black rice flour contained the highest levels of sodium. The investigation's findings demonstrated that raw black rice flour outperformed other processed black rice flour in terms of several proximate, functional, and mineral aspects, proving to be appropriate for the creation of a range of novel food products with positive health effects.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




How to Cite

Sangma, H. C. R., & Parameshwari, S. (2024). Analysis of Proximate, Functional, and Mineral Composition in Processed Black Rice (<i>Oryza sativa</i> L. <i>indica</i>) Flours: A Comparative Exploration. Journal of Natural Remedies, 24(4), 851–860.



Research Articles


Received 2023-11-29
Accepted 2024-02-06
Published 2024-04-30



Chao XI, Jie RE, Xiu-Qin ZH, Zai-Song DI, Jing ZH, Chao WA, Jun-Wei ZH, Joseph CA, Qiang ZH, Yun-Long PA, Yong-Ming GA. Genetic dissection of low phosphorus tolerance related traits using selected introgression lines in rice. Rice Sci. 2015; 22(6):264-74.

Joshi ND, Mohapatra D, Joshi DC. Varietal selection of some indica rice for production of puffed rice. Food and Bioprocess Tech. 2014; 7:299-305.

Ito VC, Lacerda LG. Black rice (Oryza sativa L.): A review of its historical aspects, chemical composition, nutritional and functional properties, and applications and processing technologies. Food Chem. 2019; 301:125304.

Sangma HC, Parameshwari S. Health benefits of black rice (Zizania aqatica)-A review. Materials Today: Proc. 2023; 80:3380-4.

Hanhineva K, Törrönen R, Bondia-Pons I, Pekkinen J, Kolehmainen M, Mykkänen H, Poutanen K. Impact of dietary polyphenols on carbohydrate metabolism. Intl J of Mol Sci. 2010; 11(4):1365-402.

Rao AS, Reddy SG, Babu PP, Reddy AR. The antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of methanolic extracts from Njavara rice bran. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2010; 10(1):1-9. 6882-10-4

Liu P, Li Y, Gao L, Zhou X, Ma P, Wang Q. Effect of different carbohydrates on the functional properties of Black Rice Glutelin (BRG) modified by the maillard reaction. J of Cereal Sci. 2020; 93:102979.

Shi Y, Wang L, Fang Y, Wang H, Tao H, Pei F, Li P, Xu B, Hu Q. A comprehensive analysis of aroma compounds and microstructure changes in brown rice during roasting process. Lwt. 2018; 98:613-21.

Marerat M, Powan P, Singthongym J. Functional properties of rice bran and its application in bread. In12th ASEAN Food Conf. 2011. p. 289-95.

Prasad K, Singh Y, Anil A. Effects of grinding methods on the characteristics of Pusa 1121 rice flour. J of Trop Agri and Food Sci. 2012; 40(2):193-201.

Surh J, Koh E. Effects of four different cooking methods on anthocyanins, total phenolics and antioxidant activity of black rice. J of the Sci of Food and Agri. 2014; 94(15):3296- 304.

Darniadi S, Ifie I, Ho P, Murray BS. Evaluation of total monomeric anthocyanin, total phenolic content and individual anthocyanins of foam-mat freeze-dried and spray-dried blueberry powder. J of Food Meas and Char. 2019; 13:1599-606. 00076-w 13. Atasie VN, Akinhanmi TF, Ojiodu CC. Proximate analysis and physico-chemical properties of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Pakistan J of Nut. 2009; 8(2):194-7. https://

Atasie VN, Akinhanmi TF, Ojiodu CC. Proximate analysis and physico-chemical properties of roundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Pakistan J of Nut. 2009; 8(2):194-7.

Association of Officiating Analytical Chemists. AOAC. Official Method of Analysis. 18th Edition. Washington DC: Association of Officiating Analytical Chemists; 2005. Method 935.14 and 992.24.

Narayana K, Narasinga Rao MS. Functional properties of raw and heat processed winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) flour. J of Food Sci. 1982; 47(5):1534-8.

Halick JV, Kelly VJ. Gelatinization and pasting characteristics of rice varieties as related to cooking behavior. Cereal Chem. 1959; 36(1):91-8.

Dhital S, Dabit L, Zhang B, Flanagan B, Shrestha AK. In vitro digestibility and physicochemical properties of milled rice. Food Chem. 2015; 172:757-65.

Ebuehi OA, Oyewole AC. Effect of cooking and soaking on physical characteristics, nutrient composition and sensory evaluation of indigenous and foreign rice varieties in Nigeria. African J of Biotechnol. 2007; 6(8).

Zheng XI, Lan YU. Effects of drying temperature and moisture content on rice taste quality. The Proceedings of the 5th Asia-Pacific Drying Conf. 2007; (2):1112-7.

Verma P, Yadav AN, Kumar V, Singh DP, Saxena AK. Beneficial plant-microbe’s interactions: biodiversity of microbes from diverse extreme environments and its impact for crop improvement. Plant-microbe interactions in agro- ecological perspectives: volume 2: microbial interactions and agro-ecological impacts. 2017; 543-80.

Thomas R, Wan-Nadiah WA, Bhat R. Physiochemical properties, proximate composition, and cooking qualities of locally grown and imported rice varieties marketed in Penang, Malaysia. Intl Food Research J. 2013; 20(3).

Tanaka N, Fujita N, Nishi A, Satoh H, Hosaka Y, Ugaki M, Kawasaki S, Nakamura Y. The structure of starch can be manipulated by changing the expression levels of starch branching enzyme IIb in rice endosperm. Plant Biotechnol J. 2004; 2(6):507-16. 23. Lai VM, Lu S, He WH, Chen HH. Non-starch polysaccharide compositions of rice grains with respect to rice variety and degree of milling. Food Chem. 2007; 101(3):1205-10.

Oko AO, Ubi BE, Efisue AA, Dambaba N. Comparative analysis of the chemical nutrient composition of selected local and newly introduced rice varieties grown in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. Intl J of Agri and Frorestry. 2012; 2(2):16-23.

Kraithong S, Lee S, Rawdkuen S. Physicochemical and functional properties of Thai organic rice flour. J of Cereal Sci. 2018; 79:259-66.

Aprianita A, Vasiljevic T, Bannikova A, Kasapis S. Physicochemical properties of flours and starches derived from traditional Indonesian tubers and roots. J of Food Sci and Tech. 2014; 51:3669-79.

Tharise N, Julianti E, Nurminah M. Evaluation of physico- chemical and functional properties of composite flour from cassava, rice, potato, soybean and xanthan gum as alternative of wheat flour. Intl Food Research J. 2014; 21(4).

Khuwijitjaru P, Nualchan P, Adachi S. Foaming and emulsifying properties of rice bran extracts obtained by subcritical water treatment. Sci Eng and Health Stud. 2007; 7-12.

Guan X, Yao H, Chen Z, Shan L, Zhang M. Some functional properties of oat bran protein concentrate modified by trypsin. Food Chem. 2007; 101(1):163-70.

Islam MZ, Taneya ML, Shams-Ud-Din M, Syduzzaman M, Hoque MM. Physicochemical and functional properties of brown rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour and quality of composite biscuit made thereof. The Agr. 2012; 10(2):20-8.

Bhat R, Sridhar KR, Young CC, Bhagwath AA, Ganesh S. Composition and functional properties of raw and electron beam irradiated Mucuna pruriens seeds. International J of Food Sci and Tech. 2008; 43(8):1338-51.

Lee SC, Heo J, Woo HC, Lee JA, Seo YH, Lee CL, Kim S, Kwon OP. Fluorescent molecular rotors for viscosity sensors. Chem-A EU J. 2018; 24(52):13706-18.

Sompong R, Siebenhandl-Ehn S, Linsberger-Martin G, Berghofer E. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of red and black rice varieties from Thailand, China and Sri Lanka. Food Chem. 2011; 124(1):132-40.

Chen X, Zhang X, Wang B, Chen P, Xu Y, Du X. Investigation of water migration and its impacts on eating qualities of black rice during cooking process. J of Cereal Sci. 2019; 89:102810.

Shih F, King J, Daigle K, An HJ, Ali R. Physicochemical properties of rice starch modified by hydrothermal treatments. Cereal Chem. 2007; 84(5):527-31.

Mbaeyi-Nwaoha IE, Uchendu NO. Production and evaluation of breakfast cereals from blends of acha and fermented soybean paste (okara). J of Food Sci and Tech. 2016; 53:50-70. 2032-8

Arivuchudar R. Assessment of functional properties of flour mix. Intl J of Food and Ferment Tech. 2018; 8(1):81-5.

Bian Q, Sittipod S, Garg A, Ambrose RK. Bulk flow properties of hard and soft wheat flours. J of Cereal Sci. 2015; 63:88-94.

Huguet ME, Huertas R, Francini L, Vila L, Darre E. Concentrations of As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, and Zn in uruguayan rice determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. INNOTEC. 2006(1 ene-dic); 5.

Zhang MW, Guo BJ, Peng ZM. Genetic effects on Fe, Zn, Mn and P contents in indica black pericarp rice and their genetic correlations with grain characteristics. Euphytica. 2004; 135:315-23.