Effects of Sub-lethal Concentrations of Plasticizer - Diethyl Phthalate on a few Reproductive Indices of Female Freshwater Murrel, Channa striatus (Bloch)

Jump To References Section


  • Post-Graduate and Research Department of Zoology, St. Thomas College, Kozhencherry - 689641, Kerala ,IN
  • Post-Graduate and Research Department of Zoology, St. Thomas College, Kozhencherry - 689641, Kerala ,IN
  • Post-Graduate and Research Department of Zoology, St. Thomas College, Kozhencherry - 689641, Kerala ,IN
  • Post-Graduate and Research Department of Zoology, St. Thomas College, Kozhencherry - 689641, Kerala ,IN
  • Post-Graduate and Research Department of Zoology, St. Thomas College, Kozhencherry - 689641, Kerala ,IN




Channa striatus, Diethyl Phthalate, Endocrine Disruption, Plasticizer


Diethyl phthalate (DEP) is used as a plasticizer and arrives at the aquatic environment from different industries and can cause deleterious effects to fish. Great concern regarding the effects of these compounds in nature has evolved as a consequence to their endocrine-disrupting properties. Most of the studies on the endocrine-disrupting effects of chemicals in nature are based on their effects on the reproduction of fish and on changes in their genital structures. In the present study, the effect of exposure of female Channa striatus to DEP has been investigated. The treatment caused reduction in gonadosomatic index, ova diameter and fecundity. This may be due to the endocrine disrupting activity of this chemical. Histopathological examination of the ovary of DEP-exposed fish showed dose-dependent regressive changes as a result of estrogenic endocrine disruption. The present study strongly suggests that DEP induces endocrine disruption adversely affecting the reproductive potential of female Channa striatus.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




How to Cite

Mohan, S., Nair, G. G., Prabhakar, R., N. A., M., & George K, R. (2022). Effects of Sub-lethal Concentrations of Plasticizer - Diethyl Phthalate on a few Reproductive Indices of Female Freshwater Murrel, <i>Channa striatus</i> (Bloch). Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction, 26(3), 171–178. https://doi.org/10.18311/jer/2022/29363



Original Research



Bukola D, Zaid A, Olalekan EI, Falilu A. Consequences of anthropogenic activities on fish and the aquatic environment. Poultry Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences. 2015; 3:2. https://doi.org/10.4172/2375-446X.1000138

Wang Y, Zhu H, Kannan K. A review of biomonitoring of phthalate exposures. Toxicol. 2019; 7(2):21. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020021 PMid:30959800 PMCid:PMC6630674

European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Information on Chemicals. Helsinki Finland European Chemicals Agency; 2018

Revathy V, Chithra KC. Effects of diisononyl phthalate on the antioxidant status in gill, liver and muscle tissues of the fish, Oreochromis mossambicus. Asian J Adv Basic Sci. 2018a; 6(1):37-48.

Revathy V, Chithra K. Di (2- ethyl hexyl) phthalate induced lipid peroxidation and associated oxidative stress in gill, liver and muscle tissues of fish, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852). Int J Theor Appl Sci. 2018b; 10(2):1-9.

Poopal RK, Ramesh M, Maruthappan V, Rajendran RB. Potential effects of low molecular weight phthalate esters (C6H22O4 and C12H14O4) on the freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio. Toxicol Res. 2017; 6(4):505-20. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7TX00084G PMid:30090519 PMCid:PMC6062309

Sower SA, Freamat M, Kavanaugh SI. Erratum to “The origins of the vertebrate hypothalamic- pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) endocrine systems: New insights from lampreys. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2009; 161(1):20- 9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2008.11.023 PMid:19084529

de Kretser DM, Hedger MP, Loveland KL, Philips DJ. Inhibins, activins and follistatin in reproduction. Hum Reprod Update 2002; 8(6): 529-41. https://doi.org/10.1093/humupd/8.6.529 PMid:12498423

Roy GK, Malini NA, Archana R, Deepa R. Enzymatic changes in the kidney and brain of freshwater murrel, Channa striatus (Bloch) on short term exposure to sub-lethal concentration of lead nitrate. Indian J Fish. 2011; 58: 91–94.

Roy GK, Malini, NA, Sandhya RGO. Biochemical changes in liver and muscle of the cichlid, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852) exposed to sub-lethal concentration of mercuric chloride. Indian J Fish. 2012; 59:147–152.

Scholz S, Kluver N. Effects of endocrine disrupters on sexual, gonadal development in fish. Sex Dev. 2009; 3(2-3):136-51. https://doi.org/10.1159/000223078 PMid:19684458

Giulivo M, Lopez de AM, Capri E, Barceló D. Human exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds: Their role in reproductive systems, metabolic syndrome and breast cancer. A review. Environ Res. 2016; 151:251-264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2016.07.011 PMid:27504873

Factor LP, Insel B, Calafat AM, et al. Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years. PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(12): e114003. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114003 PMid:25493564 PMCid:PMC4262205

Balalian AA, Whyatt RM, Liu X, et al. Factor LP. Prenatal and childhood exposure to phthalates and motor skills at age 11 years. Environ Res. 2019; 171:416-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.01.046 PMid:30731329 PMCid:PMC6814270

Bhattacharya P, Keating AF. Impact of environmental exposures on ovarian function and role of xenobiotic metabolism during ovotoxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012; 261(3):227-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2012.04.009 PMid:22531813 PMCid:PMC3359424

Craig ZR, Wang W, Flaws JA. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals in ovarian function: effects on steroidogenesis, metabolism and nuclear receptor signaling. Reproduction 2011; 142(5):633-46. https://doi.org/10.1530/REP-11-0136 PMid:21862696

Roy GK, Malini NA, Praveena GS, Rejani MK.Haematological and biochemical alterations in short term exposure to sub lethal concentration of Bisphenol A in Oreochromis mossambicus(Peters, 1852). Poll Res. 2017; 36(1): 57-62.

Roy GK, Gokul, GN, Malini NA . Effects of different sub-lethal concentrations of plasticizer-diethyl phthalate on Fresh water murrel, Channa striatus (Bloch). J Appl Nat Sci. 2017; 9(1): 476–481.

Elvin T, Malini NA, Roy GK. Deleterious Effect of Short Term Exposure to Xenoestrogen- Bisphenol A on Certain Haematological and Physiological Profile of Freshwater Murrel, Channa Striata (Bloch, 1793). Poll Res. 2020; 39: 126-133

Muhammad S, Zhang Z, Pavase TR, Guo H. Long-term exposure of two plasticizers di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC): Toxic effects on gonadal development and reproduction of zebra fish (Danio rerio). Indian J Marine Sci. 2018; 47(4):789-97.

Bhatia H, Kumar A, Ogino Y, et al. Di-n-butyl phthalate causes estrogenic effects in adult male Murray rainbow fish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis). Aquatic Toxicol. 2014; 149:103-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2014.01.025 PMid:24576492

Grossman D, Kalo D, Gendelman M, Roth Z. Effect of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on in vitro developmental competence of bovine oocytes. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2012; 28(6):383-96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10565-012-9230-1 PMid:22956148

Revathy V, KC Chitra. Di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) impairs reproduction in the freshwater fish, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852). Asian Fish Sci. 2018c; 31(4):284-96. https://doi.org/10.33997/j.afs.2018.31.04.004

Revathy V, KC Chitra. Role of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the antioxidant status in testes and ovary of the fish, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852). Int J Pharm Biol Sci. 2019; 9(1):1186-94.

Li J, Wu Z, Cheng J. Testicular injury induced by DBP involved in activation of ERK pathway in KM mice. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2018; 47(6):956-62.

Zhang T, Li L, Qin XS, et al. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and bisphenol A exposure impairs mouse primordial follicle assembly in vitro. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2014; 55(4):343-53. https://doi.org/10.1002/em.21847 PMid:24458533

Li L, Zhang T, Qin XS, et al. Exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) results in a heritable modification of imprint genes DNA methylation in mouse oocytes. Mol Biol Rep. 2014; 41(3):1227-35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-013-2967-7 PMid:24390239

Ray B, D’Souza AS, Kumar V, et al. Ovarian development in Wistar rat treated prenatally with single dose diisobutyl phthalate. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2012; 113(10):577-82. https://doi.org/10.4149/BLL_2012_129 PMid:23094893

Hannon PR, Peretz J, Flaws JA. Daily exposure to Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate alters estrous cyclicity and accelerates primordial follicle recruitment potentially via dysregulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signalling pathway in adult mice. Biol Reprod. 2014; 90(6):136. https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.114.119032 PMid:24804967 PMCid:PMC4435463

Moyer B, Hixon ML. Reproductive effects in F1 adult females exposed in utero to moderate to high doses of mono-2- ethylhexylphthalate (MEHP). Reprod Toxicol. 2012; 34(1):43-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2012.02.006 PMid:22401849 PMCid:PMC3367132

Pocar P, Fiandanese N, Secchi C, et al. Exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in utero and during lactation causes longterm pituitary-gonadal axis disruption in male and female mouse offspring. Endocrinology 2012; 153(2):937-48. https://doi. org/10.1210/en.2011-1450 PMid:22147016

Herreros MA, Gonzalez-Bulnes A, Inigo-Nunez S, et al. Toxicokinetics of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its effects on luteal function in sheep. Reprod Biol. 2013; 13(1):66-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.repbio.2013.01.177 PMid:23522073

Beausoleil C, Ormsby JN, Gies A, et al. Low dose effects and non-monotonic dose responses for endocrine active chemicals: science to practice workshop: workshop summary. Chemosphere. 2013; 93(6):847-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.06.043 PMid:23932820

Vandenberg LN. Non-monotonic dose responses in studies of endocrine disrupting chemicals: Bisphenol a as a case study. Dose Response 2014; 12(2):259-76. https://doi.org/10.2203/dose-response.13-020. PMid:24910584 PMCid:PMC4036398

Liu T, Li N, Zhu J, et al. Effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis in adult female rats. Reprod Toxicol. 2014; 46:141-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2014.03.006 PMid:24675100

Li N, Liu T, Zhou L, et al. Di-(2-ethylhcxyl) phthalate reduces progesterone levels and induces apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cell in adult female ICR mice. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012; 34(3):869-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2012.08.013 PMid:22986106

Romani F, Tropea A, Scarinci E, et al. Endocrine disruptors and human reproductive failure: The in vitro effect of phthalates on human luteal cells. Fertil Steril. 2014; 102(3):831-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.05.041 PMid:25016925

Meeker JD, Ferguson KK. Urinary phthalate metabolites are associated with decreased serum testosterone in men, women, and children from NHANES 2011-2012. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(11):4346-52. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2014-2555 PMid:25121464 PMCid:PMC4223430

Carlstedt F, Jonsson BAG, Bornehag CG. PVC flooring is related to human uptake of phthalates in infants. Indoor Air. 2013; 23(1): 32-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0668.2012.00788.x PMid:22563949

Gomez C, Gallart-Ayala H. Metabolomics: A tool to characterize the effect of phthalates and bisphenol A, Environ Rev. 2018; 26(4): https://doi.org/10.1139/er-2018-0010 Joensen UN, Fredericksen H, Jensen MB, et al. Phthalate excretion pattern and testicular function: A study of 881 healthy Danish men. Environ Health Perspect. 2012; 120:1397-403. https://doi.org/10.1289/ ehp.1205113 PMid:22832070 PMCid:PMC3491947

Hsieh TH, Tsai CF, Hsu CY, et al. Phthalates induce proliferation and invasiveness of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer through the AhR/HDAC6/c-Myc signaling pathway. FASEB J. 2012; 26(2):778-87. https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.11-191742 PMid:22049059

Joensen UN, Fredericksen H, Jensen MB, et al. Phthalate excretion pattern and testicular function: a study of 881 healthy Danish men. Environ Health Perspect. 2012; 120: 1397-403