The Efficacy of Intermediary and Mitochondrial Metabolic Enzymes as Non-Estrogenic Biomarkers for the Assessment of 4-Nonylphenol Toxicity in the Freshwater Teleost Labeo rohita

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  • Department of Zoology, University College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala ,IN
  • Department of Zoology, University College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala ,IN
  • Department of Zoology, University College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala ,IN
  • Department of Zoology, University College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala ,IN
  • Department of Zoology, University College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala ,IN



4-Nonylphenol, Electron Transport Chain, Intermediary Metabolism, Mitochondrial Enzymes


4-Nonyl-Phenol (4-NP) is a breakdown product of Nonyl-Phenol Ethoxylate (NPE). It has attracted concern because of its persistence in the aquatic habitats and the toxicity to aquatic organisms. 4-NP is a known endocrine disruptor and a legendary xenoestrogen. Nevertheless, the non-estrogenic impacts of 4-NP in aquatic organisms have only been scarcely addressed. Hence, in the present study we evaluated the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of 4-NP (1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 ?g/L) in the major carp Labeo rohita in the intermediary and mitochondrial metabolism. We found that exposure to 4-NP produced remarkable alteration in the activities of: 1. enzymes of intermediary metabolism such as glucose 6 phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, cytosolic malic enzyme and isocitrate dehydrogenase, and 2. mitochondrial enzymes such as malate dehydrogenase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase. Thus, the study indicates that 4-NP, at concentrations as would prevail in the environment, impairs the activities of metabolic enzymes and, thereby, affects the tricarboxylic acid cycle and electron transport chain. Alteration in the levels of these enzyme activities can thus be taken to advantage for the surveillance of the impact of 4-NP in energy metabolism in the aquatic organisms.


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Remya, V. S., Reshmi, S., Shehna Mahim, S., Anjali, V. R., & Aruna Devi, C. (2022). The Efficacy of Intermediary and Mitochondrial Metabolic Enzymes as Non-Estrogenic Biomarkers for the Assessment of 4-Nonylphenol Toxicity in the Freshwater Teleost <i>Labeo rohita</i>. Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction, 25(2), 145–158.



Original Research



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