Safety Evaluation of a Traditional Medicinal Plant, Flemingia vestita Benth and Hooker in Swiss Albino Mice: An Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity Study
Keywords:Acute Toxicity, Flemingia vestita, Medicinal Plant, Sub-Acute Toxicity
Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of Flemingia vestita root-peel extract was performed in Swiss albino mice as per OECD guidelines 425 and 407. In acute toxicity test, mice were administered extract doses of 175, 550, and 1760 mg/ kg body weight (b.w.), and finally, 2000 mg/kg b.w., limit dose. The treated animals were observed for adverse signs or mortality for 14 days. In the sub-acute toxicity study, mice were divided into seven groups (n = 5). Animals in group one served as control, while group five received acetaminophen to act as positive control. Groups two, three and four of animals were given 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg doses of extract for 28 days. Animals in groups six and seven served as the satellite groups for 300 mg/kg and acetaminophen-treated groups for another two weeks to monitor any delayed effects or reversal from adverse effects. The study was approved by the Member-Secretary and the Chairman, Institutional Ethics Committee (Animal Models) of North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong vide letter number: IEC/MS/Misc./08/dated September 26, 2019. Body weight, relative organ weight, haematological and biochemical parameters, and histopathology of the liver, kidney, intestine and spleen of animals were studied. No adverse effects or mortality of animals was observed at 2000 mg/kg b.w., limit dose. The LD50 of the extract was estimated to be greater than 2000 mg/kg. In a sub-acute toxicity study, a 300 mg/kg dose showed a noticeable decrease in food, water consumption, and body weight. Likewise, haematological observations revealed an increase in leukocyte count, and biochemical parameters showed an increase in aspartate aminotransferase in 300 mg/kg extract dose. In histopathological studies, mildly disrupted hepatocytes were observed in liver sections of high-dose treated mice. The findings suggest that F. vestita root-peel extract is safe for consumption but may cause mild toxicity at a high dose of 300 mg extract/kg b.w.
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