Evaluation of In Vitro Antidandruff Activity of Biotransformed Material (Extract) of Nicotiana tabacum Leaves





Biotransformation, Malassezia furfur, Nicotiana tabacum


The methods of preparing new derivatives of known substrates were applied to modify organic compounds like Carbohydrates, steroids, sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, antibiotics, amino acids etc. Such alteration encompasses many changes in the substrate moiety by the addition, degradation or modification. When basic structure of resultant molecule remains unaltered, the microbial biotransformation can be applied for formation of desired derivatives of precursor. Aim: To determine the in-vitro anti-dandruff activity of biotransformed material of Nicotiana tabacum leaves. Material and Method: The collected leaves about 200 g were macerated in cow urine (1 L) for time period of 28 days. After the completion of this time period, the biotransformed material was harvested, lyophilized and powdered (20 g). Regular aqueous extract of the leaves was also prepared for comparative study. Various concentrations, such as 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 500 mg/ml, of aq. extract and biotransformed material of Nicotiana tabacum leaves were prepared and tested for in vitro anti dandruff activity using strain of Malassezia (Pityrosporum) furfur and compared with marketed ayurvedic, homoepathic and allopathic (Ketoconazole 2 %) formulations. Result: The regular extract and the biotransformed material were screened for phytochemicals. It showed the presence of alkaloids, prominently. The strains responsible for the biotransformation process were also evaluated and identified as Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus megaterium. The biotransformed material of Nicotiana tabacum leaves shows promising effect against Malassezia (Pityrosporum) furfur, in terms of zone of inhibition of about 7 mm at 100 mg/ml 26 mm at 500 mg /ml, respectively. The results were found promising as compared to the regular aqueous extract, marketed formulations including Ketoconazole 2 % preparation. Conclusion: The study shows the improved potential of the cow urine biotransformed material over the normal extract of the same plant. It was evident that the dandruff growth was significantly inhibited by treatment with biotransformed material. Hence, in vitro studies of microbial biotransformed Nicotiana tabacum leaves was found to have a potential anti-dandruff activity between 100 mg/ml to 500 mg/ml, compared with its aqueous extract, marketed ayurvedic, homoepathic and allopathic formulations.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biography

Prakash Itankar

Pharmacognosy Department,

Research scholer


Ates DA, Erdogrul OT. Antimicrobial activities of various medicinal and commercial plant extracts. Turk J Biol.2003; 27:157–62.

Selvakumar P, Edhaya NB, Prakash D. Studies on the antidandruff activity of the essential oil of coleus amboinicus and eucalyptus globules. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 1985; 213–6.

Balakrishnan KP, Narayanswamy N, Mathews S, Gurung K. Evaluation of some medicinal plants for their dandruff control properties. International Journal of Pharma and Bio sciences. 2010; 2:38–45.

Chopra RN, Chopra IC, Handa KL, Kapur LD. Indigenous Drugs of India; Academic Publications. 1982; 510–1.

DeAngelis YM, Saunders CW, Johnstone KR. Isolation and expression of a Malassezia furfur lipase gene, LIP1. J Invest. Dermatol. 2007; 127(9):2138–46.

Nadkarni. Indian Materia Medica. Vol. 2. Popular Prakashan. 1976; 3:850–7.

Inamadar AC, Palit A. The genus Malassezia and human disease. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2003;69(4):265–70.

Wang J, Ze L, Jessie L-S. Au Pharmaceutical Research.2006; 11:45–6.

Kasiram K, Sakharkar PR, Patil AT. Antifungal activity of Calendula officinalis. 1987; 543–8.

Kaushik RD, Gupta, Yadav R, et al. Alopecia and Herbal Remedies. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research. 2011; 2(7):1631–7.

Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants.International Book Distribution. 1975; 3:1798–9.

Murkute AV, Sahu MS, Mali PY, Rangari VD. Development and Evaluation of Formulations of Microbial Biotransformed Extract of Tobacco Leaves for Hair Growth Potential. Pharmacognosy Research. 2010;2(5):300–3.

Misal G, Dixit G, Kulkarni V. Indian journal of NaturalProduct and Resources. 2012; 4:501–5.

Maria CS, Souza M, Pinheiro A, Ferreira M, Goncalves R, Cristin T, Peralta M. Evaluation of antitubercular activity of nicotinic and isoniazid analogues. Arkivoc. 2007;14:181–91.

Sato N, Leopold PL, Ronald G. Crystal. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2001; 24:1859–64.

Pandit NK, Wang D. Salts effects on the diffusion and release rate of propranolol from poloxamer 407 gels.International Journal of Pharmacy. 1998; 167:183–9.

Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of medicinal plants. New Delhi: CSIR; 1976. p. 375–80.

Rehm HJ, Verghase G. Biotransformations, Biotechnology. Vol. 6a. 1984. p. 1–25, 209–34, 245–64, 304–9.

Schmolka I. Artificial skin, preparation and properties of Pluronic F-127 gels for the treatment of the burns. J Biomed Mater Res. 1972; 6:571–82.

Sagar R, Dixit VK. Formulation and evaluation of herbal anti-dandruff shampoo. Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine. 2005; 9:55–60.

Wang H, Zhao M, Yang B, Jiang Y, Rao G. Identification of polyphenols in tobacco leaf and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Food Chemist. 2008; 107:1399–406.

Yildirim A, Mavi A, Kara AA. Determination of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Rumex crispus L.extract. J Agric and Food Chemist. 2001; 49:4083–9.

The Wealth of India. vol. 2. New Delhi: CSIR; 1998. p.177–81.




How to Cite

Itankar, P., & Murkute, A. V. (2015). Evaluation of In Vitro Antidandruff Activity of Biotransformed Material (Extract) of <i>Nicotiana tabacum</i> Leaves. Journal of Natural Remedies, 15(2), 65–70. https://doi.org/10.18311/jnr/2015/507