Health Risk Assessment of Paraquat Contaminated in Spirogyra spp. (tao) in Chiang Mai, Thailand
Keywords:Health Risk Assessment, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Paraquat, Spirogyra spp. (tao)
AbstractSpirogyra spp. (tao) is freshwater green algae which are consumed as an uncooked food especially in the north of Thailand. Aquatic plants especially algae are easily contaminated by pesticide residues from soil and water. Paraquat (1,1β-dimethyl, 4,4β-bipyridinium dichloride; PQ), a widely used herbicide among Thai farmers, is toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic to mammals through ingestion, inhalation and skin contact. This study aims to determine the concentrations of paraquat contaminated in Spirogyra spp. (tao) and health risk assessment on the consumption of Spirogyra spp. (tao) in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The levels of paraquat were analyzed by using a simple, sensitive, and reliable method which was high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seven samples were collected from the different districts. The levels of paraquat contamination were 5.07±0.00 to 12.69±0.10 mg/kg. The results showed that the concentrations of paraquat in all samples were lower than the standard level of the European Commission Regulation. Risk assessment of paraquat found that the hazard quotient was in the range of 0.18-0.46. It indicated that the consumption of Spirogyra spp. (tao) was expected to have no adverse health effects. However, the consumption of Spirogyra spp. (tao) should be a concern in terms of chronic exposure to toxic herbicide contaminated in the environment.
How to Cite
Panuwet P, Siriwong W, Prapamontol T, et al. Agricultural Pesticide Management in Thailand: Situation and Population Health Risk. Environ Sci Policy. 2012;17:72-81.
Kongtip P, Nankongnab N, Phupancharoensuk R, et al. Glyphosate and Paraquat in Maternal and Fetal Serums in Thai Women. J Agromedicine. 2017;22(3):282-9.
Forté CA, Colacino J, Polemi K, et al. Pesticide exposure and adverse health effects associated with farmwork in Northern Thailand. J Occup Health. 2021;63(1):e12222.
Tirado R, Englande Jr A, Promakasikorn L, et al. Use of agrochemicals in Thailand and its consequences for the environment. 2008.
Pataranawat P, Kitkaew D, Suppaudom K. Paraquat contaminations in the Chanthaburi river and vicinity areas, Chanthaburi province, Thailand. Journal of Science Technology and Humanities. 2014;10:17-24.
Konthonbut P, Kongtip P, Nankongnab N, et al. Paraquat Exposure of Pregnant Women and Neonates in Agricultural Areas in Thailand. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(6).
Wongsawad P, Peerapornpisal Y. Morphological and molecular profiling of Spirogyra from northeastern and northern Thailand using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2015;22(4):382-9.
Thumvijit T, Thuschana W, Amornlerdpison D, et al. Evaluation of hepatic antioxidant capacities of Spirogyra neglecta (Hassall) Kützing in rats. Interdiscip Toxicol. 2013;6(3):152-6.
Jaiswar S, Kazi MA, Mehta S. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by freshwater algal species of Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India. J Environ Biol. 2015;36(6):1361-6.
Lupsor S, Stanciu G, Epure D, et al., editors. Heavy Metals and Pesticides Analysis from Black Sea Algae2009; Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
Bauer Dial CA, Dial NA. Lethal effects of the consumption of field levels of paraquat-contaminated plants on frog tadpoles. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1995;55(6):870-7.
Blanco-Ayala T, Andérica-Romero AC, Pedraza-Chaverri J. New insights into antioxidant strategies against paraquat toxicity. Free Radic Res. 2014;48(6):623-40.
Tajai P, Fedeles BI, Suriyo T, et al. An engineered cell line lacking OGG1 and MUTYH glycosylases implicates the accumulation of genomic 8-oxoguanine as the basis for paraquat mutagenicity. Free Radic Biol Med. 2018;116:64-72.
Tajai P, Suriyo T, Rangkadilok N, et al. Andrographolide, an Antioxidant, Counteracts Paraquat- Induced Mutagenesis in Mammalian Cells. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2021;22(S1):3-8.
Jovtchev G, Gateva S, Stergios M, et al. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of paraquat in Hordeum vulgare and human lymphocytes in vitro. Environ Toxicol. 2010;25(3):294-303.
Zienolddiny S, Ryberg D, Haugen A. Induction of microsatellite mutations by oxidative agents in human lung cancer cell lines. Carcinogenesis. 2000;21(8):1521-6.
Wesseling C, Antich D, Hogstedt C, et al. Geographical differences of cancer incidence in Costa Rica in relation to environmental and occupational pesticide exposure. Int J Epidemiol. 1999;28(3):365-74.
Wesseling C, van Wendel de Joode B, Ruepert C, et al. Paraquat in developing countries. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2001;7(4):275-86.
Zou T, He P, Cao J, et al. Determination of paraquat in vegetables using HPLC-MS-MS. J Chromatogr Sci. 2015;53(2):204-9.
Chattopadhyay S. Grain Incidents and Other Mercury Tragedies: Forms, Fate, and Effects. In: Wexler P, editor. Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Second Edition). New York: Elsevier; 2005. p. 464-9.
Dourson ML, Knauf LA, Swartout JC. On reference dose (RfD) and its underlying toxicity data base. Toxicol Ind Health. 1992;8(3):171-89.
Wells ML, Potin P, Craigie JS, et al. Algae as nutritional and functional food sources: revisiting our understanding. J Appl Phycol. 2017;29(2):949-82.
Wells JC, Treleaven P, Charoensiriwath S. Body shape by 3-D photonic scanning in Thai and UK adults: comparison of national sizing surveys. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012;36(1):148-54.
Shaban NS, Abdou KA, Hassan NE-HY. Impact of toxic heavy metals and pesticide residues in herbal products. Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2016;5(1):102-6.
Akinloye, Adamson, Ademuyiwa, et al., editors. Occurrence of paraquat residues in some Nigerian crops, vegetables and fruits2011.