Evaluation of Water Quality Pollution Indices for Heavy Metal Contamination Monitoring in Surface Water of Sutlej River (India)


  • Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, Punjabi University, Patiala – 147002, Punjab
  • Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, Punjabi University, Patiala – 147002, Punjab




Domestic Waste, Heavy Metal Pollution, Industrial Wastewater, Water Quality Index


Globally, heavy metal contamination in aquatic environment is a growing dilemma and currently reached at an alarming rate. Surface water receives metal contamination both naturally and anthropogenically. A study was conducted during October 2018 – Dec 2019 to examine the present status of heavy metal pollution in the river Sutlej (Downstream junction of Buddha Nullah), Punjab. The prime thrust is to determine the heavy metal concentrations (Arsenic, Nickel, Cadmium, Cobalt, Chromium, Boron, Manganese, Copper, Iron, Lead and Zinc) of surface water from two points at the location site and to determine the water quality indices (Heavy metal pollution index, heavy metal evaluation index and degree of contamination). Heavy metal analysis has been done using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer. The results of this study showed that the average concentration of heavy metals such as As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and Pb were 0.123?g/l, 0.144 ?g/l, 0.047 ?g/l, 0.059 ?g/l, 0.189 ?g/l, 0.281?g/l, 1.424?g/l, 0.097?g/l, 0.291?g/l, 0.904 ?g/l and 0.631 ?g/l respectively. The overall mean concentration of heavy metals was observed in the following order Fe >Zn>Pb>Cu>Ni>Cr>B>As>Mn>Co>Cd. The HPI and HEI (water quality indices) for As, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr and Cu were 503.05, 55.55 respectively. It is concluded that the study area is critically polluted with heavy metals that are lethal to aquatic life and humans.


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How to Cite

Singh Brraich, O., & Jassal, R. (2021). Evaluation of Water Quality Pollution Indices for Heavy Metal Contamination Monitoring in Surface Water of Sutlej River (India). Toxicology International, 28(4), 327–335. https://doi.org/10.18311/ti/2021/v28i4/27421



Original Research