Safety Evaluation of <i>Carex baccans</i> Nees. (A Traditional Anthelminthic Remedy), in Swiss Albino Mice: An Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity Study
Keywords:Biochemistry, <i>Carex baccans</i> Nees, Hematology, Toxicity, Ultrastructure
AbstractThe medicinal properties of Carex baccans Nees. (Cyperaceae) has widely been exploited in traditional healing practices for the treatment of various ailments. Though, this is a widely used herb, not much is known about the adverse implications it may have. Therefore to shed some light into this aspect, acute and sub-acute toxicity study of the plant's crude extract and fractions were carried out in Swiss albino mice following Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 423 and 407 guidelines respectively. Additionally, the phytochemical composition of the crude extract was also determined. Effect of the extract and the fraction was analyzed taking into consideration the body weight, organs weight, blood physiology, key markers of liver and kidney functions, and microscopic analysis of liver, kidney and intestine structural composition using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the crude extract exert no observable signs of acute toxicity even at a dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight of mice, however, the butanol fraction proved to be toxic with a mean lethal dose of 4677.35 ± 103.38 mg/kg. Repeated oral sub-acute test of the mice with crude extract and fraction of the crude extract was also found to exert adverse effects on the animals at high doses (500 mg/kg body weight and above) when compared to control group. These adverse implications were manifested in the body weight, hematology, biochemistry, and the structural and ultrastructural composition of some important organs. Therefore, it may be concluded that the plant C. baccans, if taken in its crude native form has a high safety margin at a single dose but not the butanol fraction. Furthermore, repeated exposure to the plant, both in its crude and fractionated (butanol fraction) form at high doses should be discouraged as it may have severe implications.
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