Effect of Aqueous Extract of Passiflora edulis on Biochemical and Hematological Parameters of Wistar Albino Rats
Keywords:Acute and subacute toxicity studies, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, P. edulis
AbstractPassiflora edulis is traditionally used in folk lore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of P. edulis in Wistar albino rats. Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In subacute study, they were administered with various doses of aqueous extract of P. edulis (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg body weight) to evaluate its toxicity for a period of 7 days. The effect of aqueous extract of P. edulis on organ weight, hematological, renal, and hepatic markers were analyzed. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was seen with in 24 h of the administration of P. edulis extract. No signs of neurological and behavioral changes were noticed with in 72 h. In the subacute study, the extract intake has not changed the hematological parameters such as RBC, WBC, and platelets and it was also found that the plasma level of amino transferases, ALP, urea, uric acid and, creatinine were also not altered by the administration of P. edulis extract throughout the study. The weight of organ was found to be unaltered in all the doses selected. The acute toxicity study reveals that the oral administration of the extract was found to be safe up to the dose level of 2000 mg/kg. The subacute study indicates that the extract is safe on the bone marrow function and it is neither hepatotoxic nor nephrotoxic. This supports the safety use of the aqueous extract of P. edulis in pharmacological studies.
Owolabi J, Omogbai EK, Obasuyi O. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of the ethanolic and aqueous extract of Kigelia africana (Bignoniaceae) stem bark. Afr J Biotechnol 2007;6:882-5.
Yadav JP, Saini S, Kalia AN, Dangi AS. Hypoglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of Salvadora oleoides in normal and alloxan – induced diabetes rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2008;40:23-7.
Nworgu ZA, Onwukaeme DN, Afolayan AJ, Amaechina FC, Ayinde BA. Preliminary studies of blood pressure lowering effect of Nauclea latifolia in rats. Afr J Pharm Phamacol 2008;2:37-41.
Lee SI, Oh SH, Park KY, Park BH, Kim JS, Kim SD. Antihyperglycemic effects of fruits of privet (Ligustrum obtusifolium) in streptozotocin – induced diabetic rats fed a high fat diet. J Med Food 2009;12:109-17.
Pushparay P, Tan CH, Tan BK. Effect of Averrhoea bilimbileaf extract on blood glucose and lipid in STZ-diabetic rats.J Ethanopharmacol 2000;72:69-76.
Patel SS. Morphology and Pharmacology of Passiflora edulis: A review. J Herb Med Toxicol 2009;3:1-6.
Yakuba MT, Akanji MA, Oladiji AT. Effect of oral administration of aquoes extyract of Fadogia agretis stem on some testicular function indices of male rats. J Ethanopharmacol 2008;111:288-92.
Sanderson JH, Philips CE. An atlas of laboratory animal haematology. New York: Oxford University Press; 1981. p. 471.
Duncan BD. Multiple ranges tests for correlated and heteroscedastic means. Biometrics 1957;13:359-64.
Clarke EG, Clarke ML. Landers veterinary toxicology in London. London: Bailliere Tindall; 1997.
Zbinden G, Roversi F. Significance of the LD 50 teat for the toxicological evaluation of chemical substances. Arch Toxicol 1981;47:77-99.
Schmidt BM, Ilic N, Poulev A, Raskin I. Toxicological evaluation of a chicory root extract. Food Chem Toxicol 2007;45:1131-9.
Appidi JR, Yakubu MT, Grierson DS, Afolayan AJ. Toxicological evaluation of aqueous extracts of Hermannia incana Cav. leaves in male wistar rats. Afr J Biotechnol 2009;8:2016-20.
Odoula T, Adeniyl FA, Bello IS, Subair HG. Toxicity studies on an unripe Carica papaya aqueous extract: Biochemical and haematological effects in Wister albino rats. J Med Plants Res 2007;1:1-4.
Ghosh S, Suryawanshi SA. Effect of Vinica rosea extracts in treatment of alloxan diabetes in male albino rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2001;39:748-59.
Ramakrishnan S, Swami R. Text Book of Clinical Biochemistry and Immunology. Chennai: T.R. Publications; 1995. p. 21-7.
Will's DE. Biochemical basis of medicine. 3rd ed. Bristol, England: John Wright and Sons Ltd; 1985. p. 267-8.
Akanji MA, Yakubu MT. Alpha tocopherol protects against metabisulphite- induced tissue damage in rats. J Biochem Mol Biol 2000;15:179-83.
Al-Habori M, AL-Aghbari A, AL-Mamary M, Baker M. Toxicological evaluation of Catha edulis leaves: A long term feeding experiment in animals. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;83:209-17.
Sunitha M, Devaki K. Antimicribial activity of Passiflora edulis Sims leaves. Adv Pharmacol Toxicol 2009;10:171-4.
Hodek P, Trefil P, Stiborova M. Flavonoids-potent and versatile biologically active compounds interacting with cytochromes P450. Chem Biol Interact 2002;139:1-21.
Aliyu AB, Ibrahim MA, Musa AM, Ibrahim H, Abdullkadir IE, Oyewale AO. Evalaution of antioxidant activity of leave extract of Bauhinia refurscens Lam. J Med Plant Res 2009;3:563-7.
Odabasoglu F, Aslan A, Cakir A, Suleyman HK. Comparision of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of 3lichen species.Phytother Res 2004;18:938-41.
Bever BO. Oral hypoglycaemic plants in West Africa. J Ethanopharmacol 1980;2:119-27.
Afolayan AJ, Yakubu MT. Effect of Bulbine natalensis Baker stem extract on the functional indices and histology of the liver and kidney of male Wistar rats. J Med Food 2009;12:814-20.