Antioxidant Attenuation of Atrazine Induced Histopathological Changes in Testicular Tissue of Goat In Vitro



a-tocopherol, antioxidant, atrazine, capra hircus, goat, pesticide, testis


During the present investigation the effect of a-tocopherol (100 µmolL-1) in prevention of testicular toxicity induced by atrazine in goat Capra hircus have been analyzed. Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) at dose level 100 µmolL-1 provides attenuation over the histopathological changes generated by pesticide atrazine (100 nmolml-1). Small pieces (approximately 1mm3) of testicular tissue were divided into three groups (one control group + two experimental groups). Experimental group (A) was supplemented with 100 nmolml-1 concentration of atrazine and experimental group (B) was supplemented with 100 nmolml-1 atrazine and 100 µmolL-1 concentrations of vitamin E (α-Tocopherol) and harvesting was carried out after 1, 4 and 8 hrs of exposure. Control was run along with all the experimental groups. In the experimental group (A) treated with atrazine at dose level 100 nmolml-1, revealed histomorphological alterations in the seminiferous tubule. After one hour of exposure duration small vacuoles in cytoplasm of the Sertoli cells and spermatogonia were observed. Chromolysis at pycnosis were also noticed in the spermatogonia and spermatids. In the experimental group (B) exposed with atrazine and simultaneously supplemented with Vitamin E also showed degeneration but it was milder as compared with experimental group treated with atrazine without antioxidant. Atrazine exposure induced a decline in diameter of spermatocytes from 10.51 ± 0.2052 µm in control to 7.915 ± 0.2972, 7.5 ± 0.211 and 7.14 ±0.225 µm after exposure of 1, 4 and 8 hrs respectively but in case of atrazine supplemented with vitamin E [experimental group (B)], there was less decline in cell diameter that was 8.5 ± 0.1865, 8.1 ± 0.1201 and 7.8 ± 0.2066µm after exposure of 1, 4 and 8 hrs respectively. The result demonstrated that vitamin E delays the degenerative changes induced by atrazine.


Download data is not yet available.


Pocar P, Brevini TA, Fischer B, Gandolfi F. The impact of endocrine disruptors on oocyte competence. Reproduction 2003;125: 313-25.

Damstra T, Barlow S, Bergman A, Kavlock R, Van Der Kraak G.Global assessment of the state-of-the-science of endocrine disruptors. International Programme on Chemical Safety 2002;WHO/PCS/EDC/02.2 new_issues/endocrine_disruptors/en/.

Hollander D. Environmental effects on reproductive health: The endocrine disruption hypothesis. Fam Plann Perspect 1997;29:82-6. Available from: pubs/journals/2908297.html.

Colborn T, vom Saal FS, Soto AM. Developmental effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wildlife and humans. Environ Health Perspect 1993:101:378-84

Safe SH, Foster WG, Lamb JC, Newbold RR, Van Der Kraak G.Estrogenicity and endocrine disruption. CAST 2000. p. 1-16.Available from: publicationPDFs/endocrine.pdf.

Skakkebaek NE, Negro-Villar A, Michal F, Fathalla M. Impact of the environment on reproductive health. Report and Recommendations of a WHO International Workshop. Dan Med Bull 1991;38:425-6.

Ashby J, Tinwell H, Stevens J, Pastoor T, Breckenridge CB. The effects of atrazine on the sexual maturation of female rats. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2002;35:468-73.

Rayner JL, Wood C, Fenton SE. Exposure parameters necessary for delayed puberty and mammary gland development in Long– Evans rats exposed in utero to atrazine. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2004;195:23-34.

Kniewald J, Jakominic M, Tomljenovic A, Simic B, Romac P, Vranesic D, Kniewald Z. Disorders of male rat reproductive tract under the influence of atrazine. J Appl Toxicol 2000;20:61-8.

Friedmann AS. Atrazine inhibition of testosterone production in rat males following peripubertal exposure. Reprod Toxicol 2002;16:275-9.

Trentacoste SV, Friedmann AS, Youker RT, Breckenridge CB, Zirkin BR. Atrazine effects on testosterone levels and androgen-dependent reproductive organs in peripubertal male rats. J Androl 2001;22:142-8. Available from:

Swan SH, Kruse RL, Liu F, Barr DB, Drobnis EZ, Redmon JB, et al.Semen quality in relation to biomarkers of pesticide exposure.Environ Health Perspect 2003;111:1478-84. Available from:

Chitra KC, Sujatha R, Latchoumycandane C, Mathur PP. Effect of lindane on antioxidant enzymes in epididymis and epididymal sperm of adult rats. Asian J Androl 2001;3:205-8

Chitra KC, Latchoumycandane C, Mathur PP. Effect of nonylphenol on the antioxidant system in epididymal sperm of rats. Arch Toxicol 2002;76:545-51.

Farombi EO, Abarikwu SO, Adedara IA, Oyeyemi MO. Curcumin and kolaviron ameliorate di-n-butylphthalate-induced testicular damage in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2007;100:43-8.

Latchoumycandane C, Mathur PP. Induction of oxidative stress in the rat testis after short-term exposure to the organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor. Arch Toxicol 2002;76:692-8.

Latchoumyc andan e C , C h i t ra KC, Mathur PP.2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces oxidative stress in the epididymis and epididymal sperm of adult rats.Arch Toxicol 2003;77:280-4.

Harris C, Lee E, Hiranruengchok R, McNutt TL, Larson SJ, Akeila S, et al. Characteristics of glutathione redox and antioxidant status in post implantation rat embryos: Response to oxidative stress.Toxicology 1996;30:2-2.

Lenzi A, Gandini L, Picardo M, Tramer F, Sandri G, Panfili E.Lipoperoxidation damage of spermatozoa polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufa): Scavenger mechanisms and possible scavenger therapies. Front Biosci 2000;5:1-15. Available from: http://

Jeulin C, Soufir JC, Weber P, Laval-Martin D, Calvayraec R. Catalase activity in human spermatozoa and seminal plasma. Gamete Res 1989;24:185-96.

Alvarez JG, Storey BT. Role of glutathione peroxidase in protecting mammalian spermatozoa from loss of motility caused by spontaneous lipid peroxidation. Gamete Res 1989;23:77-90.

Mennella MR, Jones R. Properties of spermatozoal superoxide dismutase and lack of involvement of superoxides in metal-ioncatalysed lipid-peroxidation and reactions in semen. Biochem J 1980;191:289-97. Available from:

Yoganathan T, Eskild W, Hansson V. Investigation of detoxification capacity of rat testicular germ cells and sertoli cells. Free Radic Biol Med 1989;7:355-9.

Paiva SAR, Russell RM. Beta;-carotene and other carotenoids as antioxidants. J Am Coll Nutr 1999;18:426-33. Available from:

Mascio PD, Murphy ME, Sies H. Antioxidant defense systems: The role of carotenoids, tocopherols, and thiols. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:194S-200S. Available from: content/53/1/194S.short.

Khan PK, Sinha SP. Dose-dependent minimisation of cytogenetic toxicity of endosulfan by vitamin C. Cytologia 1992;57:217-21.

Khan PK, Sinha SP. Antimutagenic efficacy of higher doses of vitamin C. Mutat Res 1993;298:157-61.

Khan PK, Sinha SP. Impact of higher doses of vitamin C in modulating pesticide genotoxicity. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 1994;14:175-81.

Khan PK, Sinha SP. Vitamin C mediated amelioration of pesticide genotoxicity in murine spermatocytes. Cytobios 1994;80: 199-204.

Sharma RK, Fulia A, Chauhan PK. Protective effect of ascorbic acid in endosulphan induced testicular toxicity in goat in vitro.J Biol Sci 2010;10:624-30.

Pearse AGE. Histochemistry: Theoritical and Applied. London: Churchill; 1968.

Lenzi A, Culasso F, Gandini L, Lombardo F, Dondero F. Placebocontrolled, double-blind, cross-over trial of glutathione therapy in male infertility. Hum Reprod 1993;8:1657-62.

Mediratta PK, Tanwar K, Reeta KH, Mathur R, Benerjee BD, Singh S, et al. Attenuation of the effect of lindane on immune responses and oxidative stress by Ocimum sanctum seed oil (OSSO) in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2008;52:171-7.

Koner BC, Banerjee BD, Ray A. Organochlorine pesticide induced oxidative stress and immune suppression in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1998;36:395-8.

Banerjee BD, Seth V, Ahmed RS. Pesticides induced oxidative stress: Perspectiveness and trends. Rev Environ Health 2001;16:1-40.

Ata A, Hatipoglu FS, Yildiz-Gulay O, Gulay MS. Protective Role of Ascorbic Acid on Subacute Sperm Toxicity in Male New Zealand White Rabbits Treated with Endosulfan. Drug Chem Toxicol 2007;30:181-95. Available from: t~branches=30 - v30.

El-Demerdash FM, Yousef MI, Kedwany FS, Baghdadi HH. Role of and alpha;-tocopherol and and beta;-carotene in amelioratingthe fenvalerate-induced changes in oxidative stress, hematobiochemical parameters & semen quality of male rats. J Environ Sci Health B 2004;39:443-59.

Lucesoli F, Fraga CG. Oxidative stress in testes of rats subjected to chronic iron intoxication and and alpha;-tocopherol supplementation. Toxicology 1999;132:179-86.

Semercioz A, Onur R, Ogras S, Orhan I. Effects of melatonin on testicular tissue nitric oxide level and antioxidant enzyme activities in experimentally induced left varicocele. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2003;24:86-90.



How to Cite

Sharma, R. K., Fulia, A., & Chauhan, P. K. (2018). Antioxidant Attenuation of Atrazine Induced Histopathological Changes in Testicular Tissue of Goat In Vitro. Toxicology International, 19(3), 260–266. Retrieved from



Original Research