Environmental Risks of Insecticides Cholinesterase Inhibitors
Keywords:Cholinesterase, chromatography, organophosphorous, spectrometry
AbstractThis study conducted on 423 inhabitant (372 adults and 51 children) blood samples were collected from patients hosted in the Emergency Hospital of Mansoura University. The clinical diagnosis of such patients was acute insecticides poisoning. The aim of the present study is to study patients with cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor organophosphorus insecticides intoxication from the laboratory point of view. The plasma samples were analyzed for levels of ChE enzyme and acetyl cholinesterase enzyme activity by spectrophotometer. The pesticides were identified using Gas Chromatography"‘Electron Captured Detector (GC"‘ECD). The results of GC"‘ECD instrument of all patients revealed that parathion (organophosphorous insecticide) poisoning was found in their blood samples. The mode of poisoning was accidentally by inhalation and skin contact. The poisoning cases of children were of mild poisoning. The degrees of poisoning of adults were severe in 138, moderate in 201 and mild in 33 cases. In conclusion, results of the present study revealed that the widely used insecticides in Dakahlyia governorate are the organophosphorous insecticides specifically parathion insecticide.
How to Cite
Cooper W, Alicbuson AP, Wilson JF. The impact of development policies on health. Special Report. Geneva: WHO; 1994. p. 44.
WHO. Use and after effects of insecticides. CHEA special studies, No. 1:20. 1991.
Sullivan JB. Insecticides. In: Hanson W, editor. Toxic Emergencies.New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1984. p. 233"‘6.
Lotti M. Cholinesterase inhibition: complexities in interpretation.Clinical Chem 1995;41:1814"‘8.
Mason HJ, Waine E, Stevenson A, Wilson HK. Aging and spontaneous reactivation of human plasma cholinesterase activity after inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides. Hum Exp Toxicol 1993;12:497"‘503.
Weisenburger DD. Human health effects of agricultural use. Hum Pathol 1993;24:571.
Burtis CA, Ashood ER. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry.2nd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1994. p. 791"‘7, 874, 962, p. 1529"‘36.
Flanagan RJ, Braithwaite RA, Brown SS, Widdop B, Wolff FA. Basic Analytical Toxicology, 1st ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1995. p. 188"‘9.
Maurer HH, Weber A. Mass Spectral and GC Data of Drugs, Poisons, Pesticides, Pollutants and Their Metabolites. 2nd ed.Part. 1. Weinheim, New York, Basle: VCH; 1992.
Aaron CK, Goldfrank LR, Bresnitz EA, Kirsten, RH, Howland, MA. Insecticides: organophosphates and carbamates. In: Goldfrank LR, Flomenbaum NE, Lewin NA, Weisman RS, Howland MA, editors. Goldfrank, s Toxicological Emergencies.4th ed. London, Sydney: Prentice"‘Hall Inc.; 1990. p. 679"‘89.
Mortensen ML. Management of acute childhood poisonings caused by selected insecticides and herbicides. Pediatr Clin North Am 1986;33:421"‘45.
Marey HM. Toxicological study on cases of organophosphorous Insecticides Admitted to the emergency department of Alex.Main University hospital. MSc. Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine; Alex University; 1986.
Agarwal SB. A clinical, biochemical, neurobehavioral and socipsychological study of 190 patients admitted to hospital as a result of acute organophosphorous poisoning. Environ Res 1993;62:63"‘70.
Bey TA, Sullivan JB, Walter FG. Organophosphate and carbamate Insecticides. In: Sullivan JB, Krieger GR, editors. Clinical Environmental Health and Toxic Exposures, 2nd ed, Ch. 98.Philadelphia, Baltimore, New York, London: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2001. p. 1046"‘55.
Cavanagh JB. Peripheral nerve changes in ortho"‘cresyl phosphate poisoning in the cat. J Pathol Bacteriol 1964;87:365"‘83.
Niesinic RJ, Vries J, Hallenges MA. Anticholinesterase effect.Effect S.T. Toxicology, Principals and Applications. New York: CRC Press; 1996. p. 1014.
Abdel"‘Magid LA, Salem EM. Clinical manifestations and management of patients with acute poisoning by anticholinesterase insecticides (Anti"‘ChEI). J Pest Control Environ Sci 1993;5:1"‘21.
Ellenhorn MJ, Barceloux DG. pesticides. Medical Toxicology, Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. Ch. 38. London, Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1988. p. 1067"‘77.