Systematic Study on Structure and Function of ATPase of Wuchereria bancrofti


  • Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong "‘ 4331
  • Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong "‘ 4331
  • Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong "‘ 4331
  • Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong "‘ 4331
  • Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong "‘ 4331
  • Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong "‘ 4331


ATPase, docking studies, epitope, Filariasis, Wuchereria bancrofti


Background: Analyzing the structures and functions of different proteins of Wuchereria bancrofti is very important because till date no effective drug or vaccine has been discovered to treat lymphatic filariasis (LF). ATPase is one of the most important proteins of Wuchereria bancrofti. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) converts into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a free phosphate ion by the action of these ATPase enzymes. Energy releases from these dephosphorylation reactions drive the other chemical reactions in the cell. Materials and Methods: In this study we worked on the protein ATPase of Wuchereria bancrofti which has been annotated from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Various computational tools and databases have been used to determine the various characteristics of that enzyme such as physiochemical properties, secondary structure, three"‘dimensional (3D) structure, conserved domain, epitope, and their molecular evolutionary relationship. Result: Subcellular localization of ATPase was identified and we have found that 55.5% are localized in the cytoplasm. Secondary and 3D structure of this protein was also predicted. Both structure and function analysis of ATPase of Wuchereria bancrofti showed unique nonhomologous epitope sites and nonhomologous antigenicity sites. Moreover, it resulted in 15 ligand drug"‘binding sites in its tertiary structure. Conclusion: Structure prediction of these proteins and detection of binding sites and antigenicity sites from this study would indicate a potential target aiding docking studies for therapeutic designing against filariasis.


Download data is not yet available.


Melrose WD. Lymphatic filariasis"‘ New insights into an old disease. Int J Parasitol 2002;32:947"‘60.

Manguin S, Bangs MJ, Pothikasikorn J, Chareonviriyaphap T. Review on global co"‘transmission of human Plasmodium species and Wuchereria bancrofti by Anopheles mosquitoes. Infect Genet Evol 2010;10:159"‘77.

Ottesen EA, Hooper PJ, Bradley M, Biswas G. The global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: Health impact after 8 years. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2008;2:317.

Dreyer G, Noroes J, Figueredo"‘Silva J, Piessens WF. Pathogenesis of lymphatic disease in bancroftian filariasis: A clinical perspective. Parasitol Today 2004;16:544"‘8.

King CL, Freedman DP. "Filariasis”. In: Strickland GT, editor. Philadelphia: Hunter's tropical medicine and emerging infectious diseases; 2000. p. 740"‘53.

Pfarr KM, Debrah AY, Specht S, Hoerauf A. Filariasis and lymphoedema. Parasite Immunol 2009;31:664"‘72.

Gomase VS, Chitlange NR, Sherkhane AS, Changbhale SS, Kale KV. Prediction of Wuchereria bancrofti troponin antigenic peptides: Application in synthetic vaccine design to counter lymphatic filariasis. J Vaccines Vaccin 2007;4:69"‘73.

Hoti SL, Dhamodharan R, Subramaniyan K, Das PK. An allele specific PCR assay for screening for drug resistance among Wuchereria bancrofti populations in India. Indian J Med Res 2009;130:193"‘9.

Bockarie MJ, Taylor MJ, Gyapong JO. Current practices in the management of lymphatic filariasis. Expert Rev Anti"‘Infect Ther 2009;7:595"‘605.

Ismail MM, Jayakody RL, Weil GJ, Fernando D, De Silva MS, De Silva GA, et al. Long"‘term efficacy of single"‘dose combinations of albendazole, ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine for the treatment of bancroftian filariasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2001;95:332"‘7.

Dunyo SK, Simonsen PE. Ivermectin and albendazole alone and in combination for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis in Ghana: Follow"‘up after re"‘treatment with the combination. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2002;96:189"‘92.

Makunde WH, Kamugisha LM, Massaga JJ, Makunde RW, Savael ZX, Akida J, et al. Treatment of co"‘infection with bancroftian filariasis and onchocerciasis: A safety and efficacy study of albendazole with ivermectin compared to treatment of single infection with bancrofti an filariasis. Filaria J 2003;2:15.

Shenoy RK, John A, Babu BS, Suma TK, Kumaraswami V. Two"‘year follow"‘up of the microfilaraemia of asymptomatic brugian filariasis, after treatment with two, annual, single doses of ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine and albendazole, in various combinations. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2000;94:607"‘14.

Wang YY, Nacher JC, Zhao XM. Predicting drug targets based on protein domains. Show Affiliations Mol Bio Syst 2012;8:1528"‘34.

Cross RL, Müller V. The evolution of A"‘, F"‘, and V"‘type ATP synthases and ATPases: Reversals in function and changes in the H+/ATP coupling ratio. FEBS Lett 2004;576:1"‘4.

Rappas M, Niwa H, Zhang X. Mechanisms of ATPase multidisciplinary approach. Curr Protein Pept Sci 2004;5:89"‘105.

Chene P. ATPases as drug targets: Learning from their structure. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2002;1:665"‘73.

Mohan R, Venugopal S. Computational structural and functional analysis of hypothetical proteins of Staphylococcus aureus. Bioinformation 2012;8:722"‘8.

Gardy JL, Laird MR, Chen F, Rey F, Walsh CJ, Ester M, et al. PSORTb v. 2.0:Expanded prediction of bacterial protein subcellular localization and insights gained from comparative proteome analysis. Bioinformatics 2005;21:617"‘23.

Sabanadzovic S, Valverde RA, Brown JK, Martin RR, Tzanetakis IE. Southern tomato virus: The link between the families Totiviridae and Partitiviridae. Virus Res 2009;140:130"‘7.

Schena M, Shalon D, Heller R, Chai A, Brown PO, Davis RW. Parallel human genome analysis: Microarray"‘based expression monitoring of 1000 genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996;93:10614"‘9.

Swati S, Gandham VP, Kumar R, Mukhopadhyay CS, Brah CZ, Ansal M, et al. In silico analysis of evolutionary divergence of TLR9 transcript in Indian major carp Catlacatla. Herald J Biochem Bioinform 2012;1:8"‘13.

Behjati M, Torktaz I, Mohammadpour M, Ahmadian M, Easton AJ. Comparative modeling of CCRL1, a key protein in masked immune diseases and virtual screening for finding inhibitor of this protein. Bioinformation 2012;8:336"‘40.

Herráez A. Biomolecules in the computer: Jmol to the rescue. Biochem Mol Biol Edu 2006;34:255"‘61.

Hasan MA, Alauddin SM, Amin MA, Nur SM, Mannan A. In silico molecular characterization of cysteine protease yopt from yersinia pestis by homology modeling and binding site identification. Drug Target Insights 2014;8:1"‘9.

Sibi P, Paul M. In silico docking analysis of constituents of Zingiber Officinale as antidepressant. J Pharmacogn Phytother 2013;5:101"‘5.

Jambon M, Andrieu O, Combet C, Deléage G, Delfaud F, Geourjon C. The SuMo server: 3D search for protein functional sites. Bioinformatics 2005;21:3929"‘30.

Fan Z, Li K, Zhang L, Chen F, Wu Q, Li N, et al. Bioinformatics analysis of the structure and function of NADPHcytochrome p450 reductase of Plasmodium vivax. Biomed Rep 2013;1:425"‘7.

Sealey KL, Kirk RS, Walker AJ, Rollinson D, Lawton SP. Adaptive radiation within the vaccine target tetraspanin"‘23 across nine Schistosoma species from Africa. Int J Parasitol 2013,43:95"‘103.

Saffari B, Mohabatkar H, Sasan S. T and B"‘cell epitopes prediction of Iranian saffron (crocus sativus) profilin by bioinformatics tools. Protein Peptide Lett 2008;15:280"‘5.

Shi Q, Zhou Y, Sun Y. Influence of pH and ionic strength on the steric mass"‘action model parameters around the isoelectric point of protein. Biotechnol Prog 2005;21:516"‘23.

Koch O. More than a rigid framework: Molecular design using secondary structure element information. J Cheminform 2013;5:45.

Pasnik DJ, Evans JJ, Panangala VS, Klesius PH, Shelby RA, Shoemaker CA. Antigenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae extracellular products and vaccine efficacy. J Fish Dis 2005;28:205"‘12.

Dakappagari NN, Douglas DB, Triozzi PL, Stevens VC, Kaumaya PT. Prevention of mammary tumors with a chimeric HER"‘2 B"‘cell epitope peptide vaccine. Cancer Res 2000;60:3782"‘5.

Laurie R, Jackson AT, Richard M. Methods for the prediction of protein"‘ligand binding sites for structure"‘based drug design and virtual ligand screening. Curr Protein Pept Sci 2006;7:395"‘406.

Hasan MA, Hossain M, Alam MJ. A computational assay to design an epitope"‘based Peptide vaccine against Saint Louis encephalitis virus. Bioinform Biol Insights 2013;7:347"‘55.

Tomar NT, Singh V. Marla SS, Chandra R, Kumar R. Molecular docking studies with rabies virus glycoprotein to design viral therapeutics. Indian J Pharm Sci 2010;72:486"‘90.



How to Cite

Islam, M. S., Amin Patwary, N. I., Muzahid, N. H., Shahik, S. M., Sohel, M., & Hasan, M. A. (2018). Systematic Study on Structure and Function of ATPase of <i>Wuchereria bancrofti</i>. Toxicology International, 21(3), 269–274. Retrieved from



Original Research

Most read articles by the same author(s)