Rutin Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats


  • S. O. Abarikwu Department of Chemical Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Redeemer's University, Redemption City, Mowe, Ogun State
  • C. A. Otuechere Department of Chemical Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Redeemer's University, Redemption City, Mowe, Ogun State
  • M. Ekor Department of Chemical Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Redeemer's University, Redemption City, Mowe, Ogun State
  • K. Monwuba Department of Chemical Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Redeemer's University, Redemption City, Mowe, Ogun State
  • D. Osobu Department of Chemical Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Redeemer's University, Redemption City, Mowe, Ogun State


Antioxidant system, cyclophosphamide, rats, reproductive toxicity, rutin, sperms


Cyclophosphamide (CYC) as an anticancer alkylating agent has been known as a male reproductive toxicant. This study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of rutin (RUT) on CYC-induced reproductive toxicity. Sexually mature Wistar rats (weighing 199 ± 10 g with five animals in each group) were given CYC (15 mg/kg) and/or RUT (30 mg/kg) twice a week via gavage for 4 weeks. The sperm counts, sperm motility, sperm morphology, daily sperm production (DSP), testicular, and epididymal antioxidant systems: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), and testicular steroidogenic enzymes (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-HSD and spermatogenesis marker enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) in the testes, epididymis and seminal vesicles were investigated at the end of the fourth week. By the end of the fourth week, RUT prevented lower sperm counts, sperm motility, DSP, and higher abnormal sperm numbers induced by CYC. In testes, RUT decreased SOD, LDH, and SDH and increased CAT, 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD, ALP, and ACP induced by CYC. In epididymis, RUT increased SOD, CAT, GSH, GSH-Px, GR, GST SDH, ALP and ACP and decreased MDA and LDH induced by CYC. In seminal vesicles, marker enzymes were unchanged in rats given CYC alone or in combination with RUT. It appears that RUT ameliorates CYC reproductive toxicity at the investigated dose.


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How to Cite

Abarikwu, S. O., Otuechere, C. A., Ekor, M., Monwuba, K., & Osobu, D. (2018). Rutin Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats. Toxicology International, 19(2), 207–214. Retrieved from



Original Research