Hematological and Immunological Changes Due to Short-term Oral Administration of Acephate

Authors

  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat
  • Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science and AH, Jabalpur, MP

Keywords:

Acephate, biochemical, hematological, immunity, organ, body weight

Abstract

To evaluate immunotoxicological effects of environmental chemical, subacute toxicity of repeated (28 day) oral administration of acephate (Ace) in BALB/c mice was assessed. Thirty two (sixteen male and sixteen female) mice were divided into four different groups with each group containing eight (four male and four female) mice. Mice of Group C1 were administered normal saline only and served as control. Group T1 was given 1/40th of apparent LD50 (ALD50) (8.78 mg/kg), and group T2 was put on 1/30th of ALD50 [11.7 mg/kg], while group T3 received 1/20th of ALD50 [17.55 mg/kg] of Ace suspended in normal saline. The blood samples were collected from mice after 28 days of oral administration and analyzed for hematological, biochemical, and immunological parameters. The study showed that hematological parameters (monocytes and granulocytes) remained unaffected except total leukocyte count and lymphocyte which were decreased highly significantly [P≤0.01] in mice of group T3 on the 28th day of experiment. Serum total protein (TP) and serum globulin decreased significantly in mice of treatment groups dose dependently; however, no significant change was seen in serum albumin. Progressive increase in live body weight of mice decreased significantly in extremely toxic group only while spleen:body weight ratio decreased significantly in dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Ace produced suppressed humoral immune response and the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to Sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) was altered nonsignificantly. The results of this study describe the suppression of immune responses following exposure to Ace at low concentrations in experimental mice.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Spassova D, White T, Singh AK. Acute effects of acephate and methamidophos on acetylcholinesterase activity, endocrine system and amino acid concentrations in rats. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2000;126:79-89.

Rattner BA, Hoffman DJ. Comparative toxicity of acephate in laboratory mice, white-footed mice, and meadow voles. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 1984;13:483-91.

Puri A, Saxena RP, Saxena KC, Srivastava V, Tandon JS. Immunostimulant activity of Nyctanthesarbortristis L. J Ethnopharmacol 1994;42:31-7.

Lagrange PH, Mackaness GB, Miller TE. Potentiation of T-cellmediated immunity by selective suppression of antibody formation with cyclophosphamide. J Exp Med 1974;139: 1529-39.

Snedecor GW, Cochran WG. In: Jones DH (editor). Statistical Methods. 8th ed. Iwoa USA: The Iowa State University Press; 1994.

Garg UK, Pal AK, Jha GJ, Jadhao SB. Haemato-biochemical and immuno-pathophysiological effects of chronic toxicity with synthetic pyrethroid, organophosphate and chlorinated pesticides in broiler chicks. Inter Immunopharmacol 2004;4:1709-22.

Shopp GM Jr, McCay JA, Holsapple MP. Suppression of the antibody response by a formamidine pesticide: Dependence on the route of exposure. J Toxicol Environ Health 1985;15:293-304.

Jha GJ, Mahto LM, Tamang RK, Gupta MK, Chauhan HV. Evaluation of cell-mediated immunity during chronic organophosphate pesticide intoxication in mice and goats. Acta Vet Hung 1990;38:55-60.

Rooney AA, Matulka RA, Luebke RW. Developmental atrazine exposure suppresses immune function in male, but not female Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicol Sci 2003;76:366-75.

Published

2018-05-25

How to Cite

Sankhala, L. N., Tripathi, S. M., Bhavsar, S. K., Thaker, A. M., & Sharma, P. (2018). Hematological and Immunological Changes Due to Short-term Oral Administration of Acephate. Toxicology International, 19(2), 162–166. Retrieved from https://www.informaticsjournals.com/index.php/toxi/article/view/21360

Issue

Section

Original Research