Association of Circulating Resistin with Metabolic Risk Factors in Indian Females Having Metabolic Syndrome
Keywords:Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, resistin
AbstractRole of resistin in insulin sensitivity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is controversial till date. Increased serum resistin levels are associated with MetS and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum resistin levels with markers of the MetS in females. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 170 healthy female subjects were selected for the study. Out of which 71 (age 31.59 ± 4.88 years) were with MetS and 99 (age 31.75 ± 6.34 years) were without MetS. Different parameters of MetS and serum resistin level were measured according to the standard protocols as given in NCEP ATP III 2001 guideline. Serum resistin levels were significantly higher in subjects with MetS when compared with subjects without MetS [13.54 ± 4.14 ng/ml (n = 71) vs. 7.42 ± 2.31 ng/ml (n = 99); P â‰¤ 0.001]. Resistin levels were positively associated with waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, waist/hip ratio, serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, serum VLDL, plasma insulin, and insulin resistance, while it was negatively associated with highdensity lipoprotein. This study demonstrates a positive correlation between resistin and factors of MetS except high-density lipoprotein which was found to be negatively correlated in Indian female subjects.
Steppan CM, Bailey ST, Bhat S, Brown EJ, Banerjee RR, Wright CM, et al. The hormone resistin links obesity to diabetes. Nature 2001;409:307-12.
Steppan CM, Lazar MA. Resistin and obesity-associated insulin resistance. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2002;13:18-23.
Kawashima J, Tsuruzoe K, Motoshima H, Shirakami A, Sakai K, Hirashima Y, et al. Insulin down-regulates resistin mRNA through the synthesis of protein(s) that could accelerate the degradation of resistin mRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Diabetologia 2003;46:231-40.
Shojima N, Sakoda H, Ogihara T, Fujishiro M, Katagiri H, Anai M, et al. Humoral regulation of resistin expression in 3T3-L1 and mouse adipose cells. Diabetes 2002;51:1737-44.
Delhanty PJ, Mesotten D, McDougall F, Baxter RC. Growth hormone rapidly induces resistin gene expression in white adipose tissue of spontaneous dwarf (SDR) rats. Endocrinology 2002;143:2445-8.
Wolfing B, Neumeier M, Buechler C, Aslanidis C, Scholmerich J, Schaffler A. Interfering effects of insulin, growth hormone and glucose on adipokine secretion. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2008;116:47-52.
Juan CC, Au LC, Fang VS, Kang SF, Ko YH, Kuo SF, et al. Suppressed gene expression of adipocyte resistin in an insulin-resistant rat model probably by elevated free fatty acids. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2001;289:1328-33.
Le Lay S, Boucher J, Rey A, Castan-Laurell I, Krief S, Ferre P, et al. Decreased resistin expression in mice with different sensitivities to a high-fat diet. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2001;289:564-7.
Way JM, Gorgun CZ, Tong Q, Uysal KT, Brown KK, Harrington WW, et al. Adipose tissue resistin expression is severely suppressed in obesity and stimulated by peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor gamma agonists. J Biol Chem 2001;276:25651-3.
Ukkola O. Resistin – a mediator of obesity-associated insulin resistance or an innocent bystander? Eur J Endocrinol 2002;147:571-4.
Moon B, Kwan JJ, Duddy N, Sweeney G, Begum N. Resistin inhibits glucose uptake in L6 cells independently of changes in insulin signaling and GLUT4 translocation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2003;285:E106-15.
Palanivel R, Sweeney G. Regulation of fatty acid uptake and metabolism in L6 skeletal muscle cells by resistin. FEBS Lett 2005;579:5049-54.
Palanivel R, Maida A, Liu Y, Sweeney G. Regulation of insulin signalling, glucose uptake and metabolism in rat skeletal muscle cells upon prolonged exposure to resistin. Diabetologia 2006;49:183-90.
Sheng CH, Di J, Jin Y, Zhang YC, Wu M, Sun Y, et al. Resistin is expressed in human hepatocytes and induces insulin resistance. Endocrine 2008;33:135-43.
Harsch IA, Koebnick C, Wallaschofski H, Schahin SP, Hahn EG, Ficker JH, et al. Resistin levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome-the link to subclinical inflammation? Med Sci Monit 2004;10:CR510-5.
Reilly MP, Lehrke M, Wolfe ML, Rohatgi A, Lazar MA, Rader DJ. Resistin is an inflammatory marker of atherosclerosis in humans. Circulation 2005;111:932-9.
Axelsson J, Bergsten A, Qureshi AR, Heimburger O, Barany P, Lonnqvist FL, et al. Elevated resistin levels in chronic kidney disease are associated with decreased glomerular filtration rate, inflammation, but not with insulin resistance. Kidney Int 2006;69:596-604.
Bo S, Gambino R, Pagani A, Guidi S, Gentile L, Cassader M, et al. Relationships between human serum resistin, inflammatory markers and insulin resistance. Int J Obes (Lond) 2005;29: 1315-20.
Shetty GK, Economides PA, Horton ES, Mantzoros CS, Veves A. Circulating adiponectin, resistin levels in relation to metabolic factors, inflammatory markers, vascular reactivity in diabetic patients, subjects at risk for diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;10:2450-7.
Al-Daghri N, Chetty R, McTernan PG, Al-Rubean K, Al-Attas O, Jones AF, et al. Serum resistin is associated with C-reactive protein and LDL cholesterol in type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease in a Saudi population. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2005;4:10.
Stejskal D, Adamovska S, Bartek J, Jurakova R, Proskova J. Resistin concentrations in persons with diabetes mellitus of type 2 and in individuals with acute inflammatory disease. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 2003;147:63-9.
Filippidis G, Liakopoulos V, Mertens PR, Kiropoulos T, Stakias N, Verikouki C, et al. Resistin serum levels are increased but not correlated with insulin resistance in chronic hemodialysis patients. Blood Purif 2005;23:421-8.
Aquilante CL, Kosmiski LA, Knutsen SD, Zineh I. Relationship between serum resistin concentrations, inflammatory chemokines, and components of the metabolic syndrome in adults. Metabolism 2008;57:494-501.
Menzaghi C, Coco A, Salvemini L, Thompson R, De Cosmo S, Doria A, et al. Heritability of serum resistin and its genetic correlation with insulin resistance-related features in nondiabetic Caucasians. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:2792-5.
Wasim H, Al-Daghri NM, Chetty R, McTernan PG, Barnett AH, Kumar S. Relationship of serum adiponectin and resistin to glucose intolerance and fat topography in South-Asians. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2006;5:10.
Burnett MS, Devaney JM, Adenika RJ, Lindsay R, Howard BV. Cross-sectional associations of resistin, coronary heart disease, and insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:64-8.
Degawa-Yamauchi M, Bovenkerk JE, Juliar BE, Watson W, Kerr K, Jones R, et al. Serum resistin (FIZZ3) protein is increased in obese humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:5452-5.
Kunnari A, Ukkola O, Kesaniemi YA. Resistin polymorphisms are associated with cerebrovascular disease in Finnish type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 2005;22:583-9.
Heilbronn LK, Rood J, Janderova L, Albu JB, Kelley DE, Ravussin E, et al. Relationship between serum resistin concentrations and insulin resistance in nonobese, obese, and obese diabetic subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:1844-8.
Pagano C, Marin O, Calcagno A, Schiappelli P, Pilon C, Milan G, et al. Increased serum resistin in adults with prader-willi syndrome is related to obesity and not to insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:4335-40.
Matsuda M, Kawasaki F, Yamada K, Kanda Y, Saito M, Eto M, et al. Impact of adiposity and plasma adipocytokines on diabetic angiopathies in Japanese Type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabet Med 2004;21:881-8.
Farvid MS, Ng TW, Chan DC, Barrett PH, Watts GF. Association of adiponectin and resistin with adipose tissue compartments, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. Diabetes Obes Metab 2005;7:406-13.
Utzschneider KM, Carr DB, Tong J, Wallace TM, Hull RL, Zraika S, et al. Resistin is not associated with insulin sensitivity or the metabolic syndrome in humans. Diabetologia 2005;48:2330-3.
Zou CC, Liang L, Hong F, Fu JF, Zhao ZY. Serum adiponectin, resistin levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. Endocr J 2005;52:519-24.
Lakka HM, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, Niskanen LK, Kumpusalo E, Tuomilehto J, et al. The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. JAMA 2002;288:2709-16.
Ninomiya JK, L'Italien G, Criqui MH, Whyte JL, Gamst A, Chen RS. Association of the metabolic syndrome with history of myocardial infarction and stroke in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Circulation 2004;109:42-6.
Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001;285:2486-97.
Keskin M, Kurtoglu S, Kendirci M, Atabek ME, Yazici C. Homeostasis model assessment is more reliable than the fasting glucose/insulin ratio and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index for assessing Insulin Resistance among obese children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2005;115:e500-3.
Cho YM, Youn BS, Chung SS, Kim KW, Lee HK, Yu KY, et al. Common genetic polymorphisms in the promoter of resistin gene are major determinants of serum resistin concentrations in humans. Diabetologia 2004;47:559-65.
Fujinami A, Obayashi H, Ohta K, Ichimura T, Nishimura M, Matsui H, et al. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for circulating human resistin: Resistin concentrations in normal subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin Chim Acta 2004;339:57-63.
Lee JH, Chan JL, Yiannakouris N, Kontogianni M, Estrada E, Seip R, et al. Circulating resistin levels are not associated with obesity or insulin resistance in humans and are not regulated by fasting or leptin administration: cross-sectional and interventional studies in normal, insulin-resistant, and diabetic subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:4848-56.
McTernan PG, Fisher FM, Valsamakis G, Chetty R, Harte A, McTernan CL, et al. Resistin and type 2 diabetes: Regulation of resistin expression by insulin and rosiglitazone and the effects of recombinant resistin on lipid and glucose metabolism in human differentiated adipocytes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:6098-106.
Youn BS, Yu KY, Park HJ, Lee NS, Min SS, Youn MY, et al. Plasma resistin concentrations measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a newly developed monoclonal antibody are elevated in individuals with type 2 diabetes J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:150-6.
Chen CC, Li TC, Li CI, Liu CS, Wang HJ, Lin CC. Serum resistin level among healthy subjects: Relationship to anthropometric and metabolic parameters. Metabolism 2005;54:471-5.
Shetty GK, Economides PA, Horton ES, Mantzoros CS, Veves A. Circulating adiponectin and resistin levels in relation to metabolic factors, inflammatory markers, and vascular reactivity in diabetic patients and subjects at risk for diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2450-7.
Asano H, Izawa H, Nagata K, Nakatochi M, Kobayashi M, Hirashiki A, et al. Plasma resistin concentration determined by common variants in the resistin gene and associated with metabolic traits in an aged Japanese population. Diabetologia 2010;53:234-46.
Osawa H, Tabara Y, Kawamoto R, Ohashi J, Ochi M, Onuma H, et al. Plasma resistin, associated with single nucleotide polymorphism âˆ’ 420, is correlated with insulin resistance, lower HDL cholesterol, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in the Japanese general population. Diabetes Care 2007;30:1501-6.
Furuhashi M, Ura N, Higashiura K, Murakami H, Shimamoto K. Circulating resistin levels in essential hypertension. Clin Endocrinol 2003;59:507-10.
Norata GD, Ongari M, Garlaschelli K, Raselli S, Grigore L, Catapano AL. Plasma resistin levels correlate with determinants of the metabolic syndrome. Eaur J Endocrinol 2007;156:279-84.