Evaluation of Testicular Toxicity Following Short-term Exposure to Cypermethrin in Albino Mice
Keywords:Albino mice, histopathology, testosterone, testes, ultrastructural changes, α, -Cypermethrin
AbstractThe present study was undertaken to assess the testicular toxicity following short-term exposure to cypermethrin (Î±-CP) in albino mice. Cypermethrin was dissolved in arachis oil and administered to two groups of mice (n = 12/group) orally at the dose rate of 250 mg/kg body weight, once a day for 28 days. Fifty percent of the animals in both the groups were sacrificed on day 14 and the remaining on day 28. Plasma samples were subjected to radioimmunoassay to determine testosterone levels. The testes were collected to determine the cholesterol levels and the activity of transaminases (AST and ALT) or epididymal alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Histological study of testicular tissue was also undertaken to examine the Î±-CP-induced ultrastructural changes using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Î±-CP significantly (P<0.05) increased the activities of testicular AST (1.36±0.12 vs. 1.19±0.10), ALT(1.78±0.11 vs. 1.36±0.09), and significantly (P<0.05) decreased the testosterone levels (0.86±0.24 vs. 1.72±0.18). Testicular cholesterol levels were elevated in treated animals as compared to control (1.81±0.16 vs. 1.42±0.08). Epididymal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was also decreased significantly (P<0.05) in treated animals (1.10±0.20 vs. 1.64±0.1). Histological studies on day 28 revealed rupture of spermatogonic cell membrane, shrinkage in the nucleus, stages of apoptosis, condensation of chromatin, and decreased cytoplasmic organelles. The study suggested that short-term exposure to Î±-CP in albino mice induced toxicopathological lesions in testicular tissue leading to decreased plasma testosterone levels.
Manske DD, Jhonson RD. Pesticide and other chemical residues in total diet samples(X). Pestic Monit J 1977;10:134-48.
Casida JE, Gammon DW, Glickmann AH, Larovence LJ. Mechanism of selective action of pyrethroid insecticides. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 1983;23:413-38.
Bhunya SP, Pati PC. Effect of deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethoid on the induction of chromosome aberrations, micronuclei and sperm abnormalities in mice. Mutagenesis 1990;5:229-32.
World Health Organization (Geneva) Alfa cypermethrin. In: Environmental Health criteria-142, WHO. Geneva: Library cataloguing in publication data; 1992. p. 20-43.
Elbetieha A, Da'as SI, Khamas W, Darmani H. Evaluation of the toxic potentials of cypermethrin pesticide on some reproductive and fertility parameters in male rats. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2001;41:522-8.
Reitman S, Frankel SA. Colorimetric method for determination of glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transminase. Am J Clin Pathol 1957;28:56-63.
Varley H. Practical clinical biochemistry. 3rd ed. London: William Heinemann Medical Books Ltd.; New York: Interscience Books Inc; 1964. p. 232.
Arora RC, Pandey RS. Pattern of plasma progesterone, estradiol17Î², luteinizing hormone and androgen in non-pregnant buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Acta Endocrininol 1982;100: 279-84.
IFCC International Federation of Clinical Chemistry Methods for Alkaline phosphatase. Clin Chem Acta 1983;135:339-67.
Sheenan DC. Theory and practice of histotechnology. London: CV Mosby Co; 1973. p. 115.
Snedecor GW, CochranWG. Statistical methods. Ames: The Iowa state Univ Press; 1967. p. 100.
Manna S, Bhattacharya D, Basak DK, Mandal TK. Single oral dose toxicity study of Î±-Cypermethrin in rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2004;36:25-8.
Giray B, Gurbay A, Hineal F. Cypermethrin induced oxidative stress in rat brain and liver is prevented by Vit –E or allopurinol. Toxicol Lett 2001;118:139-46.
LakkawarAW, Chattopadhyay SK, Somvanshi R. Experimental cypermethrin toxicity in rabbits- a clinical and patho-anatomical study. Folia Veterinaria 2004;48:3-8.
Lock EA, Berry PN. Biochemical changes in the rat cerebellum following cypermethrin administration. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1981;59:508-14.