Current Scenario of Pesticide Residues in Bovine Milk in Punjab and Human Health Risk Assessment


Milk contamination is of extreme concern consideringit’s an important component of everybody’s diet. In present study 706 milk samples collected from different districts of Punjab were screened for the presence of organophosphate, synthetic pyrethroids and organochlorine pesticides. Pesticide residues were assessed using Gas chromatography with flame thermionic detector and electron capture detector then confirmed by Gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The quantitative estimation of pesticide residues in milk samples revealed the presence of chlorpyrifos, HCH (γ-HCH), DDT, endosulfan and cypermethirn with mean levels of 1.46 ng g-1, 0.43 ng g-1, 0.40 ng g-1, 0.39 ng g-1 and 1.23 ng g-1, respectively. Chlorpyrifos was found to be the major contributor with 29.9% contribution, and 3 samples exceeding the maximum residue limit (MRL) followed by HCH with 21.2% contribution and 7 samples exceeded its MRL and cypermethrin 18.1 % contribution and only 2 samples with concentration above MRL. The spatial distribution of residues in Punjab reflected the higher levels in south-west region known as the cotton belt. Risk assessment through consumption of milk in Punjab was evaluated and observed that hazard index for DDT and HCH were within the prescribed ranges.


Bovine Milk, Pesticide Residue, Gas Chromatography, Risk Assessment, Punjab.

Subject Discipline

Pharmacy and Pharmacology

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