Journal of Natural Remedies 2023-03-24T13:12:09+00:00 Dr. M. K. Mohan Maruga Raja Open Journal Systems <div id="i-scholarabout"><img class="media-object" style="width: 222px; float: left; margin: 0px 16px 15px 20px;" src="" /> <p style="margin-left: 261px;"><strong>Editor :</strong> Dr. M. K. Mohan Maruga Raja<br /><strong>Online ISSN :</strong> 2320-3358<br /><strong>Print ISSN :</strong> 0972-5547<br /><strong>Frequency :</strong> Quarterly<br /><strong>Publisher/s :</strong> Informatics Publishing Limited, Natural Remedies</p> <br /><strong><em>Nature</em></strong> can provide all the <strong><em>remedies</em></strong>, for all. All substances produced by nature can be recognized; all cells talk the same language as we all are from the same mother cell. <strong><em>Journal of Natural Remedies</em></strong> is devoted toward the understandings of all remedies from nature.<br /><br /><strong><em>Journal of Natural Remedies</em></strong> publishes original articles related to utilisation of any natural source for remedy including bioactive natural products. Studies related to the resources, chemistry (including analytical), biological activity, biotechnology and pharmacology (including toxicology) of archaea, bacteria, protistas, fungi, plants, animals, viruses and minerals fall within the journal's scope.</div> <p>The journal welcomes investigations on products related to traditional system of medicines (Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and other systems of past and present cultures), Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM), homeopathy, indigenous remedies, folklore medicines and functional foods.</p> <p>The Journal of Natural Remedies (JNR) is a Quarterly Journal and is <br /><span style="color: blue;">Indexed in Scopus with <a href=";tip=sid&amp;clean=0">H Index</a> 19, IndMed, Web of Science BIOSIS Previews, EMBASE, <a href=";" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> U. S. National Library of Medicine</a>, UGC-CARE List Group II, Index Copernicus , CABI, ICI </span></p> <p id="homecontent"><a href="" target="blank"><img src="" alt="" width="160" height="77" /></a><a href="" target="blank"><img src="" alt="" width="160" height="77" /></a><a href="#" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" /></a></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" /></a> <a href="#" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" /></a></p> Evaluation of Memory and Cognition Enhancing Activity of Glycerrhiza glabra Linn. Formulation Along with Yoga in Teenage (13-16 years) Students. 2023-03-24T09:14:15+00:00 Mrudul Chitrakar Supriya Bhalerao Vedvati Bhapkar Vinay Pawar <p><em>Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.)</em> is one of the important neuro-nutrient herbs (<em>Medhya Rasayana</em>) mentioned in Ayurveda classics. Also, its usefulness in memory and cognition has been shown in many studies. Yoga, a part of the rich Indian heritage has also shown promising results in the memory enhancement of children and adults. Thus, a study was planned to assess the efficacy of their combined schedule in teenage students. <em>Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn</em>. was converted into an herbal formulation ‘<em>Yastimadhu Kalpa’</em> (YK) as per principles of Ayurveda pharmaceutics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of YK and Yoga schedules on the memory and cognitive performance of teenage (13-16 years old) students. In this open-labeled, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 100 assenting healthy students between 13-16 years of age were enrolled and randomized into trial and control groups, after obtaining EC approval and parent consent. Those in the trial group received YK and Yoga, while control group participants received a placebo (Ragi malt) and Yoga. The YK and placebo were to be taken with cow milk in the morning. A 30-minute Yoga schedule was also taught to them. The duration of treatment was of 90 days. Effect on memory and cognition was assessed by using cognitive ability and mental ability tests devised by Jnana-Prabodhini’s Institute of Psychology, Pune. These assessments were done on randomization visits (Day 0) and end-of-study visits (Day 90). Appropriate statistical tests were applied to the data to obtain results. Both groups showed significant improvement in cognition and memory after 90 days of treatment duration. However, YK group showed more significant improvement in cognition of figural classes and cognition of figural system in cognitive ability and memory of figural transformations, the memory of symbolic transformations, total memory, and mental ability among memory test parameters when compared to the control group. The inclusion of a Yoga schedule in both groups was found to be effective in the improvement of memory and cognition. YK (formulation of <em>Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.</em>) along with Yoga can be used in children to enhance their memory and cognition.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Mrudul Chitrakar, Supriya Bhalerao, Vedvati Bhapkar, Vinay Pawar Toxicity Status of Nano Powder of Stem Bark of Bauhinia Variegata Linn. on Experimental Animals 2023-03-24T09:14:10+00:00 Prachi Vishwakarma Shailesh V. Deshpande Snigdha Das Mandal <p>The assumption that medicinal plants are less toxic or cause fewer adverse effects due to their natural composition is debatable. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the safety and toxicity of Nano Kanchanara stem bark powder (NKSP) on liver function. The oral acute toxicity of NKSP was conducted in accordance with OECD Guidelines 423 and was carried out with six (6) female Wistar albino rats, divided into two groups of three rats each. Test rats were orally administered a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of NKSP and were observed for changes in behavior and mortality for the next 14 days, while the Control Group was given feed and water ad libitum. The data obtained from the oral acute toxicity study indicated that there were non-significant (P&lt;1.000) decreases in body weight of rats in the treatment groups of NKSP at 2000 mg/kg. There were no elevations in specific liver function enzymes, whereas there were increases in serum SGOT, SGPT, and albumin levels. Plasma total proteins and globulin, total bilirubin and serum creatinine were within the normal range. Albeit, hydropic changes and steatosis in liver lesions at NKSP 2000 mg/kg. The study suggests that oral administration of NKSP is safer at dose levels less than 2000 mg/kg/day.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Prachi Vishwakarma, Prachi Vishwakarma High Dilutions of Homeopathic Drugs Interact with Human Serum Albumin as Revealed by Electronic Spectroscopy 2023-03-24T05:14:16+00:00 Nirmal Chandra Sukul Raj Kumar Singh Sumit Ghosh Nivedita Pande Anirban Sukul <p>Homeopathy uses drugs in extreme dilutions that are mostly devoid of the original drug molecules. Drug-induced water structures are thought to be responsible for their therapeutic effect. We have already observed that homeopathic potencies first interact with serum albumin, which is present in the oral mucosa. In this experimental study, we have shown that the homeopathic potencies of three drugs, Bryonia alba (Br), Rhux toxicodendron (Rt), and Thuja occidentalis (Th), initiate their action on Human Serum Albumin (HSA). The potency-HSA complexation has been observed by electronic spectroscopy. The control, HSA plus water, shows only one peak at 216 nm, but the potencies plus HSA show two peaks, one at 205 nm and another around 265 nm. The first peak is due to the peptide bond. The first peak in the control shows a marked red shift. The second peak at higher wavelength is due to the aromatic amino acids. The first peak with the potencies shows a marked blue shift, possibly due to a change induced by the potencies on the peptide bond. Unlike water control the potencies interact with aromatic amino acids. It is evident that the complexes made up of HSA and potency are different from those of the control. This means that homeopathic potencies are not ordinary water. It is concluded that water control interacting with HSA shows a single peak in UV-spectra at lower wavelength, but homeopathic potencies show one additional peak at a higher wavelength besides the peak at the lower wave length. HDs can produce effects on aromatic amino acids. The mother tinctures and their HDs show marked differences from each other in their electronic spectra.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Prof. Nirmal Chandra Sukul, Dr. Raj Kumar Singh, Sumit Ghosh, Nivedita Pande, Anirban Sukul (Author) In vitro Evaluation of Antibiofilm Activity of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Azadirachta indica on Cariogenic Streptococcus mutans 2023-03-24T07:36:29+00:00 Deepesh Dinesh Khalid Imran Sivakumar Vijayaraghavalu Saifulla Khan M Nikesh V V <p>Dental caries is a biofilm-dependent disease, and Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiological agent involved in the initiation of the disease. The extensive use of a limited range of antimicrobial drugs in dentistry has led to the development of drug-resistant bacteria. There is an increasing need to find new alternatives against drug-resistant bacteria. Globally, there is a continuous effort towards identifying natural anti-caries agents for the prevention and better management of caries. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antibiofilm potential of Azadirachta indica leaf methanolic (ALM) extract against S. mutans biofilm. The study employed a standard reference strain of S. mutans MTCC 497, for in vitro standardisation of biofilm by microtiter plate assay. The antibiofilm activity of the ALM extract was evaluated against the S. mutans strain, and the same was confirmed by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The in vitro biofilm standardisation results demonstrated that 50 µl/ml of S. mutans inoculum concentration exhibited a much superior biofilm formation than the other concentrations employed. Light microscopy and SEM images revealed that ALM extract at 100 mg/ml concentration significantly inhibited the S. mutans biofilm. To conclude, the study reports that the A. indica leaf extract is a potential source to inhibit the S. mutans biofilm. Further studies are warranted to identify the phytochemicals responsible for the antibiofilm activity of ALM extract against S. mutans biofilm that aid in the design of natural anti-caries products.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Deepesh , Dr. KHALID, Dr. Sivakumar , Prof. Saifulla , Dr. Nikesh (Author) Conspectus of SARS-CoV-2 - In India 2022-03-06T14:35:34+00:00 Preethi Murali Manoj Prabhakar Ramya S sivapathasundharam B <p>COVID-19 has created much concern among general public, policy makers and especially heath care workers. The reason is not one but varied such as anxiety, fear, compromised health, isolation, economic crisis and social stigma all of which leads to psychological stress. The disease became a global concern due to unmanageable death even in much developed countries. Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID -19) is a newly discovered disease caused by coronavirus which reside both in humans and animals. The article is a detailed review from the origin of the disease, its progression in India and its various other aspects.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Preethi Murali, Manoj Prabhakar, Ramya S, sivapathasundharam B Chemopreventive Potential of Phytoestrogens on Hormone-Sensitive Cancer - An Updated Review 2022-09-29T05:08:55+00:00 S.Priyadharshini Subramani Jubie Selvaraj Jawahar Natarajan <p>Hormone-dependent cancers contribute to the majority of cancer deaths in women. Treatment options for hormonal cancer such as breast, endometrial, prostate, and ovarian cancer aim at inhibiting key signalling pathways and hormones responsible for cell proliferation. Hormonal therapies in the long run cause musculoskeletal disorders, Disease reoccurrence, and drug resistance. There is a need for new alternative therapies to prevent and treat hormonal carcinomas. Phytoestrogens, a naturally occurring polyphenol have potent effects on hormonal cancers due to their estrogenic effects. Evidence suggests that phytoestrogens exert their apoptotic potential by interfering with steroidogenesis, gene expressions, and down-regulation of Protein Tyrosine Kinases, Matrix Metalloproteinases. They also act as topo-poisons. This review explains the key mechanisms of phytoestrogens in inhibiting cell proliferation in hormonal cancers by evidence from recent clinical studies, meta-analyses, and cohort study reports. Phytoestrogens have multi-target potential with both preventive and treatment properties on cancer cell lines. Combination therapies with phytoestrogens are more beneficial in controlling cell progression. Hence further research is required to explore their epigenetic properties on tumour suppressor genes which stay an important target in cancer research.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 S.Priyadharshini Subramani, Jubie Selvaraj, Jawahar Natarajan An Attention-Grabbing Review on Stigma Maydis (Corn Silk) 2023-02-03T10:07:36+00:00 Kinjal Patel Dhanya B. Sen Ashim Kumar Sen Rajesh A. Maheshwari <p>Herbs are one of humanity’s oldest known therapeutic needs for long-term health, and they serve as the foundation for modern medicine. There is currently a thirst and demand for healthy diets with added value all around the world. One such important herb that can be found in many different locations is corn silk. The Chinese and Native Americans have used the herb corn silk (Stigma maydis) for generations to treat a wide range of conditions. Many countries around the world, including Turkey, the United States, and France, use it as traditional medicine. Its potential application is highly dependent on the characteristics and mechanisms of action of the plant’s bioactive ingredients, such as flavonoids, terpenoids, and other phytochemicals. Pharmacological investigations have shown that this traditional plant has medicinal qualities such as anti-oxidant, anti-depressant, anti-hyperlipidemia, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective toxicity and many more.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kinjal Patel, Dhanya B. Sen, Ashim Kumar Sen, Rajesh A. Maheshwari An Updated Review on Medicinal Plants with Hepato-protective Activity 2022-10-21T08:20:21+00:00 Jagdish Labhubhai Kakadiya Yash Subhash Janve Mohan maruga raja <p>Many precious medicines from traditional medicinal plants can be produced using a phototherapeutic approach to modern drug research. Finding pure phytochemicals that can be used as medicines requires time and money. The treatment of liver problems involves the use of numerous herbs and polyherbal mixtures. However, the treatments are ineffective in the majority of severe instances. Even though many of these plants and mixtures were subjected to experimental evaluations, the research was frequently insufficient and uncompleted. It was found that the therapeutic effects were evaluated in animals with subclinical liver damage brought on by a few substances. Antioxidants included in common foods can offer this kind of defence against liver damage brought on by hazardous substances’ oxidative processes. Therefore, hepato-protective natural products such as <em>Phyllanthus amarus, Silybum marianum, Solanum nigrum, Tephrosia purpurea, Eclipta alba, Cichorium intybus, Phyllanthus Niruri, Centella asiatica, Capparis spinosa, Terminalia arjuna, Cassia occidentalis, Fumaria parviflora, Embelia ribes, Boerhaavia diffusa, Tamarix gallica, Achillea millefolium, Terminalia chebula, Ocimum sanctum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Foeniculum vulgare, Garcinia mangostana, Acacia Catechu, Pergularia daemia, Annona squamosa, Flacourtia indica.</em> The goal of the current review is to gather information on promising phytochemicals from medicinal plants that have been evaluated in hepatotoxicity models utilising cutting-edge scientific methods.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Jagdish Labhubhai Kakadiya, Yash Subhash Janve, Mohan maruga raja An Overview of the Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile of the Spurred Mangrove Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C. B. Rob 2023-03-24T07:45:10+00:00 Sonal M Manohar Uttam M. Yadav Charuu P. Kulkarnii R C Patil <p>Plant-based natural compounds have played a significant role in developing a variety of clinically useful therapeutic agents. Mangroves are special salt-tolerant plant communities which are known to produce a range of natural products with unique pharmacological activities. An attempt has been made to review such properties in the mangrove plant Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C. B. Rob. belonging to the Rhizophoraceae family. This species is widely spread across the coastal lines of African, Asian and Australian continents and is also commonly found in India. Traditional healers have been using this plant and its extracts to treat ailments such as ulcers, diabetes and malaria. The plant is a rich source of phytochemicals such as tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, terpenoids, phytosterols and many more novel metabolites which have conferred remarkable pharmacological activities. Reports of antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, antifeedant, antifouling and anticancer activities from different parts of this plant highlight its importance as a natural remedy and the need to perform more investigations to discover novel bioactive compounds to further exploit its therapeutic potential.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sonal M Manohar, Uttam M. Yadav, Charuu P. Kulkarnii, R C Patil (Author) Ayurvedic Management of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy (PCV) -A Case Report 2023-03-24T09:13:57+00:00 K. Shanti <p>Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy (PCV), a subtype of neovascular Age-related Macular Degenerationn (AMD) is a disease characterized by persistent, recurrent serous leakage and hemorrhage in the macular area, mostly seen in the elderly population. While contemporary science offers anti Vasculo Endothelial Growth Factor (VEG-F) monotherapy and combination with Photodynamic Therapy (PDT), the outcomes of these remain doubtful. Repeated anti-VEG-F injections not only cause a financial and mental burden on the patients with no or very little visual outcome. Chronicity paves the way to complete loss of vision due to exudative retinal detachment. Symptoms like <em>Raktavatdristi</em> (to visualize things as if through a column of blood), <em>Pashyatiaasyamanaasikam</em> (unable to recognize the faces of people around) and <em>aaviladarshanam</em> (blurred vision) were suggestive of <em>Raktaja Timira</em> (an eye disease caused by <em>Raktadosa</em>) associated with <em>Kaphadushti)</em>, according to Ayurveda.</p> <p>A 77-year-old male patient diagnosed with PCV sought Ayurvedic treatment after being advised to undergo anti-VEG-F therapy for the 3rd time in a row. His treatment comprised internal medicines consisting of <em>Mahatiktakakashaya, Guduchyadikashaya, Chandraprabhavati</em> and <em>Avipathichurna</em>; external treatments like <em>Pratimarshanasya</em> with <em>Anu tailam</em> and <em>Gandusha</em> with <em>Triphalakashaya; Kriyakalpa</em> (eye treatments) like <em>Seka, Vidalaka, Aschotana</em> and <em>Anjana karma</em>.</p> <p>At the end of 3 months of Ayurvedic treatment, his visual acuity in the right eye improved to 6/6, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) affirmed complete normalcy of the macula and Fundus examination confirmed the absence of neovascularization. Ayurvedic treatment is effective in reversing the process of neovascularization, thereby bringing about the marked visual outcome in PCV. Such patients should be encouraged to adopt Ayurvedic treatment instead of expensive and invasive treatment procedures like intra-vitreal injections even when the absolute effects of these remain doubtful.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 K. Shanti A Pre-clinical Study of Jeerakadi Lepa against Indian Red Scorpion Venom Poisoning 2023-03-24T09:14:18+00:00 Pallavi Satyajit Kulkarni Narayan Gajanan Gramopaghye Satyajit Pandurang Kulkarni <p>Scorpion stings are very common in India, especially in the Konkan region of Maharashtra state. Scorpion stings show various signs and symptoms. A preclinical study to validate the efficacy of an Ayurvedic preparation called Jeerakadi Lepa was done in Swiss albino mice. A total of 18 Swiss albino mice (n = 18) were divided into 3 groups: the control group (n = 6), the standard group (n = 6) and the experimental group (n = 6). Only Indian red scorpion venom was administered by the SC route in the control group. In contrast, the venom was administered by SC in the standard group, followed by an oral tablet. Prazosin, and in the experimental group, the venom was administered by SC route, followed by local Jeerakadi Lepa. Kruskal-Wallis’s test was applied at a 95% confidence interval to assess various toxicity parameters like lacrimation, salivation, etc. The P-value was 0.04433 in toxicity symptoms (P &lt; 0.05), but it was 0.3366 (P &gt; 0.05) in the number of deaths of Swiss albino mice in the above groups. It was concluded that Jeerakadi Lepa effectively eliminated all the signs and symptoms of toxicity due to scorpion venom in Swiss albino mice. Still, it should not be used independently among humans.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pallavi Satyajit Kulkarni, Narayan Gajanan Gramopaghye, Satyajit Pandurang Kulkarni Topical Application of Ursolic Acid Cream Ameliorates Imiquimod-induced Plaque Psoriasis in BALB/c Mice 2023-03-24T09:14:02+00:00 Precious Derera Sumithra M Chitra V Mrinalini R Rukaiah Fatma Begum <p>The valued studies of alternative psoriasis treatment options are in a much higher need among the Scientific Community. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-psoriatic activity of ursolic acid cream in imiquimod-induced psoriasis in BALB/c mice. The creams containing ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid at percentages of 0.1 and 0.2% were formulated. The pH, spreadability, physical characteristics and acute dermal irritation of the cream were assessed. Animals were grouped into five each having 6 animals. Clobetasol, a topical corticosteroid, was used as the standard. One group was used as control and four groups were treated with the formulated imiquimod cream while receiving treatment. Parameters such as skin inflammation severity, ear thickness, plasma level of interleukins (IL)-17, histology of the back of the skin and spleen weight were evaluated. Erythema and scales were scored on a daily basis with the 0.1 and 0.2% ursolic acid cream significantly ameliorating psoriatic-like symptoms in a manner comparable to clobetasol. Imiquimod-induced epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation were inhibited by topical application of ursolic acid as shown by the results of histopathology. Spleens of the positive control group were larger in comparison with the rest of the groups. BALB/c mice treated with ursolic acid creams exhibited a decrease in the plasma levels of cytokines IL-17 when compared to the positive control group. The result of this study provided an insight that topical application of ursolic acid can be a potential treatment for psoriasis.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Precious Derera, Sumithra M, Chitra V, Mrinalini R Assessment of Cytotoxic Effects of Latex from Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold and Plumeria alba L. via In vitro and In silico Approaches 2022-09-27T15:33:44+00:00 Sanjukta Rajhans Himanshu Pandya Sivakumar Prasanth Kumar Kinjal Bhadresha Deep Kumari Yadav Rakesh Rawal Hafsabanu Ansari Ridham Dave Gaurang Sindhav <p>Plant latex has been found to occur in more than 40 families and among them, Apocynaceae is one. Two plants of this family i.e., Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold and Plumeria alba L. had been chosen for the current experimental work. The aqueous and methanolic latex extracts were evaluated for their phytochemical constituents and cytotoxic activities. To determine the cytotoxic effects of the latex extracts, MTT [3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay was performed by using cell lines A549 Human Lung Cancer and MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer. Further, for confirmation of the cytotoxic effects apoptosis assay was conducted. The richness of the latex extracts was determined by GC-MS and HPTLC methods. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the latex extracts was conducted using GC-MS methodology. The presence of cardiac glycosides was analyzed using HighPerformance Thin Layer Chromatography. Here, Digoxin was used as the standard. Studies have revealed that Na+ K+-ATPase can serve as a powerful target for developing anticancer drugs and cardiac glycosides have exhibited anticancer effects via inhibition of the Na+ K+-ATPase. Hence, molecular docking studies were conducted in which 6KPX served as the target and the compounds evaluated by the NIST library in GC-MS served as the ligands. Further, Molecular docking studies confirmed the best among the compounds based on their RF score, binding affinity, and as a binder whether these compounds were good or bad. These methodologies altogether helped in evaluating the richness of the plant latex extracts, and the potent cytotoxic molecules present in them.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sanjukta Rajhans Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Lantana camara Leaves Extract and In Vitro Evaluation of Oral Anti-cancer Activity 2022-07-17T16:33:30+00:00 Gayathri Kumararaja G. Praveena M. Raja P. Poovarasu R. Prakash R. Prasana R. Princeton S. Priya <p>At present, green synthesized based drug delivery systems play a major role in the bio medical field. Lantana camara, also known as Unni chedi in Tamil, is an evergreen shrub that is involved in a variety of cancer diseases due to its pharmacological activity. In addition, the leaf extract of Lantana camara was found to have excellent anti cancer activity. The green synthesized AgNPs of Lantana camara leaves extract were more efficient against oral cancer. In this report, green synthesized nano-formulations in presence of AgNPs were formulated. The asprepared formulation was confirmed by UV spectroscopy, particle size and zeta potential, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In UV Spectroscopy the absorbance of the peak appears between the range of 200 to 300 nm corresponding to the formulation of AgNPs. The Zeta potential shows high colloidal stability; the average potential value is -12.6mV. The particle size results shown that the average size of AgNPs is 268.1 nm. The morphology and particle size determined using SEM analysis indicate spherical shaped particles. Further, the oral anti-cancer activity was evaluated on Squamous Cell Cancer (SCC-25) cell line. The cell line result shown is that the IC 50 value for AgNPs was 39µg/ml and the plant extract shown 145µg/ml, this indicates that the silver nanoparticles have more potential when compared to the leaf extract.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 GAYATHRI KUMARARAJA Development and Validation of HPLC and UV Spectrophotometric Method for the Quantification of Cinnamaldehyde in Cinnamon Bark Extract 2023-03-24T09:13:51+00:00 Anjali Dhillon Satish Sardana Arti R. Thakkar <p>Cinnamaldehyde is the prime constituent of cinnamon bark and cassia oil. It is used as a flavoring agent. Numerous methods described the determination of cinnamaldehyde based on volumetric analysis, ultraviolet spectrometry, fluorimetry, thin layer chromatography, liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. The natural absorbance of cinnamaldehyde is at 286 nm which is used as a base for its determination through spectrophotometry or a suitable derivatizing reagent is used for its estimation. Most of these methods were simultaneous estimation methods and if non-simultaneous than not sensitive. Therefore, in the present study, sensitive HPLC and UV Spectrophotometric procedures have been established for the estimation of cinnamaldehyde in Cinnamon extract. The retention time of cinnamaldehyde was 7.21 minutes and absorption maxima come out to be 282 nm. 2.55 ± 0.003 mg/ml quantity of cinnamaldehyde was present in the cinnamon extract which is detected by UV Spectrophotometric method. Accuracy information appeared in the range that gives decent recovery figures for both processes. Sensitivity data furnished LOD 0.062 μg/ml and LOQ 0.19 μg/ml for HPLC and LOD 0.104 μg/ml and LOQ 0.312 μg/ml for UV Spectrophotometric method. The developed methods were found to be rugged and robust. The repeatability, Inter-day,and Intra-day precision of cinnamaldehyde provided RSD below 2% presenting the planned process to be extremely specific. Various factors to validate HPLC and UV Spectrophotometric methods of cinnamaldehyde were estimated and both methods show no significant difference. Developed procedures were statistically checked as per ICH guidelines.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Anjali Dhillon, Satish Sardana, Arti R Thakkar Microalgae: Nature’s Green System to Recycle Waste to Resource 2023-03-24T09:13:46+00:00 Kanagam Nachiappan Rajasekaran Chandrasekaran <p>Dairy wastewater management is a major concern for many milk-producing countries as it is a serious nuisance to the surroundings when disposed of untreated, increasing the organic load and foul smell. Microalgae remediation is an easy and cost-effective treatment to treat the effluent and simultaneously enhance a few agronomic traits. In this research, the phytoremediation technique was validated by treating dairy effluent using microalgal consortium and to study its impact on seed germination assay of Vigna mungo (Black gram). The results exhibited a significant increase in germination index, vigor index, and germination percentage when undiluted effluent was treated with microalgal consortium followed by other dilutions. Seedling growth was found maximum in 100% microalgal treated (TE100) undiluted effluent followed by 75% dilution (TE75), 50% dilution (TE50), 25% dilution (TE25), (TE0) treated effluent and compared with controls: water, effluent, fertilizer. So, we conclude that dairy effluent treated with suitable microalgae can be used directly for irrigation purposes to produce plants with high yield and significant biomass, indirectly making the industry a place of zero-waste discharge.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kanagam Nachiappan, Rajasekaran Chandrasekaran Neuroprotective Potential of Solanum giganteum Leaves Extracts against Neurotoxin Agents and Oxidative DNA Damage in Rodents 2023-03-24T09:13:39+00:00 Vikas Suresh Shende Jagdish Labhubhai Kakadiya <p>Other species of Solanum are evaluated as neuroprotective and have conventionally been applied for the management of CNS disorders; on the other hand, investigational data to support this practice is lacking. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of Solanum giganteum leaves extracts aligned with Aluminium chloride-induced memory loss of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) type within the rats. The work was considered to persuade dementia by chronic administration of aluminium chloride by a dose of 175 mg/kg, p.o. designed for 28 days in rats and rats are separated keen on seven groups, i.e. normal, negative control, standard groups as well as four groups of Solanum giganteum Jacq. (chloroform extract (SGC100 and 200 mg/kg) and alcoholic extract (SGA 250 and 500 mg/kg) p.o.), whereas these groups were treated and examined till the 28th day of an investigational trial. The research’s behavioral, neural, and biochemical characteristics were set up during or after it. DNA fragmentation and histological changes in the brain were also noted. Aluminium chloride on a dose of 175 mg/kg, p. o. had extensively persuaded dementia and Solanum giganteum Jacq. leaves chloroform extract 200 mg/kg p.o., overcomes therapeutic outcome against Aluminium chloride persuaded dementia of AD category in rats. Solanum giganteum Jacq. of chloroform extract makes use of neuroprotective action against AlCl3-induced behavioral considerations such as cognitive deficit and locomotor destruction. Further, Solanum giganteum Jacq. of chloroform extract was also able to cure oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus and cortical areas, reversing the biochemical abnormalities caused by aluminum.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 VIKAS SHENDE Development and Validation of HPTLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Piperine and Scopoletin in Ajmodadi churna 2023-03-24T13:12:09+00:00 Tanvi Dodiya Nisha Somavanshi Disha Prajapati <p>In this recent study, several trials were made to develop a HPTLC method for quantification of scopoletin and piperine in the Ajmodadi formulation. HPTLC was done on pre-coated silica gel 60 F254 plates with a mobile phase of toluene:ethyl acetate:methanol:formic acid (3.9:3.9:0.3:1.7 v/v/v/v). The retardation factors for scopoletin 0.75 and for piperine was 0.86 and found a good and defined resolution peak. Densitometer analysis of scopoletin and piperine was carried out at 335 wavelength (nm). The developed method was validated as reported in ICH guidelines (Q2R1). A linearity study shows that scopoletin and piperine was linear, and the recovery studies revealed a recovery in between 98-102 % as per guideline. This method was established to be rapid, delicate, accurate and specific, thus, these methods may be used in the quantification of the drug in any polyherbal formulation.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Tanvi Tanvi, Nisha Somavanshi, Disha Prajapati (Author) Estimation of Digoxin in Chloroform Extract of Moringa concanensis Leaves Using Newly Developed and Validated RP-HPLC Method 2023-03-24T05:14:32+00:00 Tanvi Dodiya Vaishali Patil <p>Cardiac glycosides are the secondary metabolites that are used in atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter as it binds with the sodium-potassium ATPase pump and increases the force of contraction. There are two types of cardiac glycosides i.e. cardenolides and bufadienolides. Digoxin is a cardenolide type of cardiac glycoside. Digoxin is found in chloroform extract of <em>Moringa concanensis</em> leaves. In the present study, the reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated to determine the content of digoxin in chloroform extract of <em>M. concanensis</em> leaves from three different geographical sources. The chromatographic method was developed at 220 nm wavelength with an Acetonitrile: Water: 1% Orthophosphoric acid (50:50:0.1 %V/V/V) mobile phase. In this method, the digoxin shows linearity in the range of 10 – 50 μg/ml with a regression coefficient of 0.995. The Limit of detection (LOD) and Limit of quantitation (LOQ) was found to be 0.232 μg/ml and 0.703 μg/ml respectively.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Tanvi Tanvi, Vaishali Patil (Author) Camphora Augments Humoral Mediated Immunity and Decreases Delayed type Hypersensitivity in BALB/c Mice 2023-03-24T12:58:49+00:00 Vara Prasad Saka G V Narasimha Kumar Abanti Goswami Digvijay Verma Pankaj Gupta <p><strong>Background</strong>: Immunomodulation encompasses all therapeutic interventions aimed at modifying the immune response. The immune response augments are desirable to prevent infection in immunodeficiency states and fight established diseases. In this context, the present study investigated the effect of the homeopathic medicine, Camphora, in 6CH, 30CH, and 200CH potencies on immunomodulation in experimental animals. The acute oral toxicity study was also carried out in 6CH, 30CH, and 200CH potencies to determine the safe dose volume for the immunomodulatory study. <strong>Methodology</strong>: Acute oral toxicity studies of Camphora in 6CH, 30CH, and 200CH potencies were carried out as per OECD guideline 423 with slight modifications in Wistar albino rats. Humoral immunity, i.e., primary and secondary humoral responses, was assessed by measuring the hemagglutination titre of sheep red blood cells. Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) was evaluated by measuring footpad thickness in BALB/c mice. <strong>Results</strong>: Camphora in 6CH, 30CH and 200CH potencies at a dose volume of 2000 µl/kg did not cause any mortality in the rats when administered as a single dose. Camphora in 6CH, 30CH and 200CH potencies showed augmented primary and secondary humoral responses against the SRBC antigen in BALB/c mice. However, the values were statistically non-significant except in the case of 6 CH potency (p&lt;0.01), which showed statistically significant primary anti-SRBC antibodies. In the DTH assay, Camphora in 6CH, 30CH and 200CH potencies significantly decreased the paw volume ratio after 24 hrs of SRBC injection in the paw, thus insinuating its role in reducing cell-mediated immunity. Camphora in 6CH, 30CH and 200CH potencies also showed enhanced antibody titres and decreased paw volume compared to vehicle control, i.e. dispensing alcohol, suggesting that the effect was imminent because of Camphora. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study results indicate that Camphora in 6CH, 30CH, and 200 CH potencies is safe up to a dose volume of 2000 µl/kg when administered as a single dose, augments the primary and secondary humoral immunity, and decreases DTH in experimental animals. The current study’s findings suggest that Camphora might be useful as an immunomodulator in treating immune system disorders and infectious diseases and require further investigation to investigate its mechanism of action.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Vara Prasad Saka, Narasimha Kumar G V, Abanti Goswami, Digvijay Verma, Pankaj Gupta (Author) Multi-Targeted Prediction of the Antiviral Effect of <i>Momordica charantia</i> extract based on Network Pharmacology 2023-03-24T12:55:03+00:00 Soma Das Rahul Gajbhiye Nitesh Kumar Dhrubajyoti Sarkar <p>The fruits of <em>Momordica charantia</em> (Bitter Gourd) are well known for centuries as a natural remedy for the treatment of various ailments. In this study, we aimed to explore the metabolites present in both varieties of small and big bitter gourds and to explore the multitarget mechanism of <em>M. charantia</em> in antiviral infection by utilizing network pharmacology. The study design involves the identification of the compounds in both varieties of the bitter gourd by Agilent QTOFLC-MS/MS system, followed by screening for ADME to analyze the possible mechanism of action, disease association, protein-protein interactions and major pathways involved therein.&nbsp; Several Databases used were IMPAT, BindingDB, Swiss Target Prediction, STRING, DAVID, and KEGG databases, and algorithms were used to gather information. To visualize the network, Cytoscape 3.2.1 was used. As a result, a total of 22 and 27 compounds were detected from small and big bitter gourds respectively. . The molecules from <em>M.charantia</em> provide an antiviral response through the involvement of pathways like toll-like receptor pathway, PI3/AKT pathway, NF-kappa B signalling pathway, and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. Moreover, the core target genes termed ‘Hub Genes” were also identified through Cyto-hubba. The main mechanisms of <em>M. charantia</em> were acquired by investigating the enrichment of each cluster through functional association clustering analysis. Our results exposed the mechanism of <em>M. charantia</em> against viral infection by multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway study combinations.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Soma Das, Rahul Gajbhiye , Nitesh Kumar, Dhrubajyoti Sarkar (Author) The Development and Validation of Novel High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Simultaneous Estimation of p-Cymene and Aloe-emodin 2023-03-24T10:52:20+00:00 Avani Khristi Jyotanshi Bisht <p>The objective of the present investigation was to develop a novel, accurate, precise, and linear High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) method for the simultaneous estimation of p-Cymene and aloe-emodin in the novel topical herbal formulation and validated as per ICH guidelines. In the current study, good chromatographic separation was achieved in isocratic mode using an HPLC C18 column (250mm × 4.6), 5 μm, and a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile:water in the ratio of 80:20, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and column temperature maintained at 25°C. The response obtained was monitored at 225 nm wavelength with a UV-Visible detector. The retention times of Aloe-emodin and p-Cymene were found to be 4.3 min and 9.0 min respectively. Linearity was established for both p-Cymene and aloe-emodin in the range of 10-90 µg/mL, respectively. For the method, % Recovery was found in the range of 99.67-100.51 % for p-Cymene and 98.68-100.4 % for aloe-emodin respectively. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.01 and 0.04 for p-Cymene and 0.12 and 0.36 for aloe-emodin respectively. This method can be successfully employed for simultaneous quantitative analysis of p-Cymene and Aloe-emodin in the novel topical herbal formulation.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Dr. Avani Khristi, Ms. Jyotanshi Bisht (Author) The Formulation and Evaluation of Sustained Release Linezolid Tablet using Natural Antibacterial Polymer - Aegle marmelos 2023-03-24T09:24:36+00:00 Rupalben Jani Shrey Patel <p>The objective of the current research study was to formulate and evaluate a sustained-release linezolid tablet using the natural antibacterial polymer Aegle marmelos. The natural gum of Aegle marmelos is becoming increasingly used in pharmaceutical formulations as a beneficial medication with excipients. Natural-based plant materials are biocompatible, free of side effects, biodegradable, and economic. Therefore, in order to maintain the drug releases from the matrix system, Aegle marmelos fruit gum as a natural polymer and HPMC grade (K100M) as a synthetic polymer were used in the formulation of the linezolid matrix tablet. The formulation of sustained-release matrix tablets included the wet granulation technique. The formulated matrix tablets were evaluated in terms of weight variation, hardness, diameter, physical appearance, friability, thickness, and in vitro drug release. Each formulation’s matrix tablet passed the required physical assessment tests. The formulation analyses of the tablets’ dissolution showed sustained releases of drugs for up to 10–12 hours. Additionally, several polymer combinations and fillers were used to improve drug release factors using the 32 factorial design approach, drug release kinetics were optimized, and the antibacterial study was evaluated.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Rupalben Jani, Shrey Patel (Author) The Electro-Spun Sublingual Film Containing Curcumin Micelles 2023-03-24T09:12:22+00:00 Bijal Prajapati Pankita Rede Chelsi Patel Rahul Pujari Abhay Dharamsi <p>Hydrophilic polymers D-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS-1000) and Poloxamer-188 were combined for the formulation of a sublingual film that aids in improving the oral bioavailability of the drug curcumin, which is not very soluble. For the formulation of micelles, the thin-film hydration technique was used and then electro-spun into a sublingual film that contained 13 % w/v PVP. Following that, prepared micelles and films were assessed and evaluated (particle size, PDI, zeta potential, %EE, pH studies, disintegration time, and in vitro drug release). According to the findings, the average particle size of the blended micelles was 230.2 nm. The ideal formulation of mixed micelles had a mean zeta potential and PDI of 20.73 mV and 0.258±0.038, respectively. Additionally, an entrapment efficiency of 82% was reached. In an aqueous medium, the film disintegrated in 40±10 seconds. Micelles were incorporated into the film without losing their integrity. Importantly, as compared to a pure drug, the films with micelles put on them showed improved bioavailability, high permeability and rapid absorption of the curcumin. Compared to the pure drug, the bioavailability of the films was increased by around 2.18 times due to the presence of mixed micelles loaded with curcumin. The results also showed that micelles-loaded sublingual films performed well in vitro for bioavailability improvement. In the end, it was found that films containing a mixture of poloxamer-188 and TPGS-1000 micelles would function effectively as carriers to boost curcumin’s bioavailability.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Bijal Prajapati, Mrs. Pankhita Rede, Chelsi Patel, Rahul Pujari, Abhay Dharamsi (Author) Ethnobotany and Antimicrobial Activity of Traditional Plant -Holotelea integrifolia 2023-03-24T08:15:49+00:00 Gunosindhu Chakraborthy Snigdha Das Mandal Rupal K. Jani <p><em>Holoptelea integrifolia (</em>Ulmaceae) is a diversely used in Traditional Systems of medicine for healing aliments. The plant is preferred in the treatment and curing diseases like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, eczema, malaria and many more. The plants exhibits various pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, nociceptive, antiaging ,inflammation, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, adaptogenic, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic. The study on moprphological and microscopical was carried out on this plant as per the standards laid down by who to find the genuinity of the species. Physical constant values involving moisture content, ash and extractives as well as qualitative and quantitative estimation of various phytochemical have been studied. The presence of Saponins, Tannins, Terpenoids, Steroid, Flavonoids, and some other chemical constituents were recorded followed by antimicrobial activity of the plant against Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria. Looking forward with the potential aspects of the plant used in Traditional system standardization parameters were to be considered for its validation and authentication.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Gunosindhu Chakraborthy, Snigdha Das Mandal, Rupal K. Jani (Author) Simultaneous Determination of Tannic Acid and Eugenol in Newly Formulated Churna of Tulsi and Parijat 2023-03-24T08:13:10+00:00 Hiral Dave Krupali Shukla <p>Herbal formulations are widely used to treat a variety of diseases with the use of natural ingredients and have the additional advantage of negligible side effects. Looking towards the wide applicability of herbal formulations, a novel herbal formulation containing Tulsi and Parijat has been formulated and evaluated for different standardisation parameters. Tulsi and Parijat both possess multiple natural effects like antibacterial, antiviral and antipyretic properties along with wide applicability to treat different respiratory problems. Therefore, the combination of these two naturally available herbs can provide good immunomodulatory action for humans. Apart from the various phytoconstituents present in these two herbs, eugenol and tannic acid are found to have versatile effects. They are widely used to treat various common health issues like tonsillitis and various respiratory complaints like cough, cold and sour throat. A successful attempt has been made to develop the HPTLC method for the simultaneous determination of Tannic acid and Eugenol in pure and newly formulated churna containing Tulsi and Parijat as chief herbs. Tannic acid and eugenol mixtures get resolved by toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (5:3:2) with Rf of 0.849 ± 0.003 and 0.534 ± 0.009 respectively for tannic acid and eugenol. Linearity is observed within the range of 250–1500 ng/band for both eugenol and tannic acid. According to ICH Q2 R1 advice for analytical method validation, this designed technique has been effectively validated.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Dr Hiral Dave, Krupali Shukla (Author) Simultaneous Quantification of Piperine, Vasicine and Eugenol in Kabasura Kudineer by HPTLC 2023-03-24T08:01:00+00:00 M. K. Mohan Maruga Raja Drashti C. Patel <p><em>Kabasura Kudineer</em> is a polyherbal decoction of the Siddha medical system (an Indian system of medicine), traditionally used to cure fever, colds, coughs, and respiratory ailments. The government of India had recommended <em>Kabasura Kudineer</em> as one of many preventive/treatment measures for COVID-19. <em>Kabasura Kudineer Choornam</em> is an admixed coarse powder of 15 herbs and its decoction is <em>Kabasura Kudineer</em>. The chemical constituents in the 15 herbs used for the preparation of the <em>Choornam</em> are known but the constituents present in the <em>Kabasura Kudineer</em> (decoction) are unidentified. Piperine, vasicine and eugenol are known for their potent activity against respiratory tract infections; hence, they were selected as marker compounds. The present work was planned to simultaneously quantify piperine, vasicine and eugenol in <em>Kabasura Kudineer</em> by the HPTLC method. The optimised mobile phase was toluene: ethyl acetate: methanol: ammonia (5:9:3:0.5, v/v/v/v), and the scanning was carried out at 287 nm. The Rf values of piperine, vasicine and eugenol were found to be 0.70, 0.32 and 0.82, respectively. The linearity range of piperine and vasicine was 500-3000 ng spot–1 and it was 10–60 ng spot–1 for eugenol. The quantities of piperine, vasicine and eugenol in <em>Kabasura Kudineer</em> (100 mL) were 0.03, 0.056 and 0.035 % w/v, respectively. This developed method can be used to simultaneously quantify piperine, vasicine and eugenol in any polyherbal formulation.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 M. K. Mohan Maruga Raja, Drashti C. Patel (Author) Structural Elucidation of Anti-Pseudomonas Component from Eucalyptus Tereticornis 2023-03-24T07:57:38+00:00 S. Badrunissa Vinitha Ramanath Pai <p><em>Eucalyptus</em> species is a well-known medicinal plant from ancient times with diverse biological functions, antimicrobial activity being one of them. This study attempts to isolate a secondary metabolite with antibacterial properties from ethanol extracts of <em>Eucalyptus tereticornis </em>leaf by antibacterial - against <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> - activity-guided procedure. Ethanol extract of the leaf powder was obtained by soxhlation and subjected to liquid-liquid extraction with organic solvents – ethyl acetate, n-hexane, n-butane, and chloroform. The active n-hexane and chloroform extracts were purified by column chromatography, and the components of the active eluant fraction were separated by Thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The purity of the antibacterial compound was checked by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the molecular weight determined by Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) and the structure elucidated and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). TLC of n-hexane extract of liquid-liquid extraction showed a single spot with antibacterial activity. A single major peak was observed on HPLC, and LC-MS revealed that the compound is a formylated phloroglucinol component (FPC) with a molecular weight of 471.3. The NMR and FTIR analysis identified that the isolated compound is Macrocarpal A. This study reveals that the isolated relatively pure anti-<em>Pseudomonas</em> compound from the leaf extracts of <em>E. tereticornis</em> is Macrocarpal A, a flavanoid from FPC.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 S. Badrunissa, Vinitha Ramanath Pai (Author) A Review on Phytoconstituents and Metal Complexes for the Treatment of Tuberculosis 2023-03-24T07:30:45+00:00 Sk Zakki Uddin Nirupama Panda G.V. Anjana M. K. Kathiravan <p>Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious lung disease. Tiny droplets discharged into the air during cough and sneezes by an individual can transmit the bacteria that cause tuberculosis from one person to another. More than one million people die each year as a result of the communicable disease tuberculosis. Anti-TB allopathic drugs have been administered to treat the disease’s symptoms; however, they can produce negative side effects such as hepatitis, hypersensitivity reactions, nausea, vomiting, etc. As a result of the toxicity and side effects of allopathic medicines, the use of herbal medicine is growing in popularity. Since ancient times, medicinal plants have been used to treat illnesses. Alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, polyphenols, terpenoids, quinines, and other secondary metabolites that have antibacterial activity are produced by plants and may be helpful in the treatment of tuberculosis. This review aims to explore the possible uses of medicinal herbs and metal complexes with antitubercular capabilities.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sk Zakki Uddin, Nirupama Panda, G.V.Anjana, M. K. Kathiravan (Author)