Stomatal Analysis of <i>Allium wallichii</i> Kunth Leaves: An Experimental Finding through Quantitative Microscopy


  • Faculty of Pharmacy, DIT University, Mussoorie Diversion Road, Dehradun, Uttarakhand – 248009
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sir J. C. Bose Technical Campus Bhimtal, Kumaun University Nainital, Uttarakhand – 263136
  • Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development, Imphal, Manipur – 795001
  • Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Gurugram, Haryana – 121004
  • Faculty of Pharmacy, DIT University, Mussoorie Diversion Road, Dehradun, Uttarakhand – 248009



<i>Allium wallichii</i>, Microscopy, Stomata, Stomatal Index, Quality Control


The use of microscopic techniques for the identification of medicinal plants is one of the best practices and an important quality control tool for standardization. Stomata are important organs for the study of phylogenetic relationships including plant origin, evolution, and classification. Allium wallichii (A. wallichii) Kunth, is one of the threatened medicinal herbs having important nutraceutical, medicinal and therapeutic value. The plant is one of the neglected species of Allium and has not been thoroughly investigated pharmacognostically. Therefore, current research work was designed to investigate the stomata types, stomata number and stomatal index through quantitative microscopy. The result presented in the current research will provide a routine identification method for A. wallichii with the allied species of Allium.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Melotto M, Underwood W, He SY. Role of stomata in plant innate immunity and foliar bacterial diseases. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2008; 46:101-122. DOI:

Alam F, Saqib QN. Pharmacognostic standardization and preliminary phytochemical studies of Gaultheria trichophylla. Pharm Biol. 2015; 53(12):1711-1718. /10.3109/13880209.2014.1003355 DOI:

Sethiya NK, Trivedi A, Patel MB, Mishra SH. Comparative pharmacognostical investigation on four ethanobotanicals traditionally used as Shankhpushpi in India. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2010; 1(4):388-395. DOI:

Sethiya NK, Brahmbhat K, Chauhan B, Mishra SH. Pharmacognostic and phytochemical investigation of Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesman pseudostem. Indian J Nat Pro Resour. 2016; 7(1):51-58.

Trivedi A, Sethiya NK, Mishra SH. Preliminary pharmacognostic and phytochemical analysis of “Granthika” (Leonotis nepetaefolia): An Ayurvedic herb. Indian J. Tradit. Knowl. 2011; 10(4):682-688.

Bhatt DY, Sethiya NK, Mishra SH. Pharmacognostic studies on the aerial parts of Suaeda maritima Linn. (Chenopodiaceae). Niger J Nat Prod Med. 2010; 14:1-5. DOI:

Tiwari U, Adams SJ, Begum N, Krishnamurthy KV, Ravikumar K, Padma V. Pharmacognostic studies on two Himalayan species of traditional medicinal value: Allium wallichii and Allium stracheyi. Not Sci Biol. 2014; 6(2):149- 154. DOI:

Chhetri HB, Gupta VNP. A survey of non-timber forest products (NTFPS) in upper Mustang. Sci World. 2007; 5(5):89-94. DOI:

Rana MS, Samant SS. Threat categorisation and conservation prioritisation of floristic diversity in the Indian Himalayan region: A state of art approach from Manali Wildlife Sanctuary. J Nat Conserv. 2010; 18:159-168. DOI:

Huang D, Li Q, Zhou C, Zhou S, He X. Intraspecific differentiation of Allium wallichii (Amaryllidaceae) inferred from chloroplast DNA and internal transcribed spacer fragments. J Syst Evol. 2014; 52:341-354. DOI:

Chen X, Krug L, Yang M, Berg G, Cernava T. The Himalayan onion (Allium wallichii Kunth) harbors unique spatially organized bacterial communities. Microb Ecol. 2021; 82:909-918. DOI:

Sundriyal M, Sundriyal RC, Sharma E. Dietary use of wild plant resources in the Sikkim Himalaya, India. Econ Bot. 2004; 58(4):626-638. 0001(2004)058[0626:DUOWPR]2.0.CO;2 DOI:[0626:DUOWPR]2.0.CO;2

Singh G, Rawat MS, Pandey D, Rawat GS. Status and traditional uses of medicinal plants in Mandal area of Western Himalaya, India. Med Plants - Int J Phytomed Relat Ind. 2011; 3(2):95-104. DOI:

Rai U, Rai B. Plant based raw drugs sold in the markets of the Darjeeling Himalaya, India: A case study. Pleione. 2020; 14(2):293-299. Pleione.14.2.2020.293-299 DOI:

Kunwar RM, Nepal BK, Kshhetri HB, Rai SK, Bussmann RW. Ethnomedicine in Himalaya: A case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2006; 2:27. 2-27 DOI:

Topwal M, Uniyal S. Review on important ethno-medicinal plants in Uttarakhand. Int J Pure App Biosci. 2018; 6(2):455- 464. DOI:

Khakurel D, Yadav U, Luczaj L, Rajbhandary S. Foods from the wild: Local knowledge, use pattern and distribution in Western Nepal. PLoS One. 2021; 16(10):e0258905. DOI:

Semwal DP, Bhatt KC, Mamgain A, Uniyal PL, Bahuguna YM. Role of potential ethno-medicinal plants resources of Kalimath valley (District: Rudraprayag) Uttarakhand, India in health care. Med Plants - Int J Phytomed Relat Ind. 2013; 5(4):223-230. DOI:

Semwal DP, Kala CP, Bhatt AB. Medicinal Plants and Traditional Health Care Knowledge of Vaidyas, Palsi and Others: A Case Study from Kedarnath Valley of Uttarakhand, India. Medicinal Plants. 2010; 2(1):51-57. DOI:

Bhattarai S, Chaudhary RP, Quave CL, Taylor RSL. The use of medicinal plants in the trans-himalayan arid zone of Mustang district, Nepal. J Ethnobiology Ethnomedicine. 2010; 6:14. DOI:

Ong HG, Ling SM, Win TTM, Kang D, Lee J, Kim Y. Ethnomedicinal plants and traditional knowledge among three Chin indigenous groups in Natma Taung National Park (Myanmar). J Ethnopharmacol. 2018; 225:136-158. DOI:

Singh A, Hart R, Chandra S, Nautiyal MC, Sayok AK. Traditional herbal knowledge among the inhabitants: a case study in Urgam Valley of Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India. Evid-based Complement Altern Med. 2019; 5656925:1-21. DOI:

Miya MS, Timilsina S, Chhetri A. Ethnomedicinal uses of plants by major ethnic groups of Hilly Districts in Nepal: A review. J Med Bot. 2020; 4:24-37. DOI:

Adhikari K, Uprety Y, Pyakurel D, Thagunna K, Bhatta LD, Chaudhary RP. Healthcare choices and use of medicinal plants: An ethnobotanical study in Kanda Area of Bajhang District, Kailash Sacred Landscape, Nepal. In: Abbasi, A.M., Bussmann, R.W. (eds) Ethnobiology of Mountain Communities in Asia. Ethnobiology. Springer, Cham. 2021. DOI:

Bhandari P, Gurung MB, Subedi CK, Chaudhary RP, Basnet K, Gurung J, Yadav U, Neupane A, Shrestha KK. Traditional use of medicinal plants in the Chyangthapu-Phalaicha biological sub-corridor, Panchthar District, Kangchenjunga Landscape, Nepal. Ethnobot Res Appl. 2021; 22:25. DOI:

Khajuria AK, Manhas RK, Kumar H, Bisht NS. Ethnobotanical study of traditionally used medicinal plants of Pauri district of Uttarakhand, India. J Ethnopharmacol. 2021; 276:114204. DOI:

Sornes E, Risal A, Manandhar K, Thomas H, Steiner TJ, Linde M. Use of medicinal plants for headache, and their potential implication in medication-overuse headache: Evidence from a population-based study in Nepal. Cephalalgia. 2021; 41(5):561-581. DOI:

Bhandari J, Muhammad BT, Thapa P, Shrestha BG. Study of phytochemical, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, and anticancer properties of Allium wallichii. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17:102. DOI:

Kamal R, Sharma GL. Steroidal sapogenins from bulbs of Allium wallichii Kunth. Pharmazie. 1984; 39(10):707-708.

Kattel A, Maga JA. Volatile compounds from dried Jimbu (Allium wallichii). Dev Food Sci. 1995; 37:919-928. DOI:

Wang H, Yang Q, Li F, Song J, Zhang X, Li X. Investigation and Analysis of Nutrition Components of Wild Chives Collected from Hezhang County of Guizhou Province. Asian Agric Res. 2018; 10(4):93-98.

Yee MM. Investigation of chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Allium wallichii Kunth. (garlic) bulb. American Scientific Research Journal of Engineering, Technology and Sciences. 2019; 54(1): 30-41.

Midday M, Ghosh J, Pradhan DK, Maity D. Folk-medicinal uses of Allium sikkimense Baker (Alliaceae) in Sikkim Himalaya. Explor Anim Med Res. 2020; 10(2):217-220.

Acharya K, Pokhrel H, Maharjan L, Bhattarai R, Karki P, Shrestha TM, Gyawali R. Comparative study of antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of two Nepalese medicinal plants- Allium wallichii Kunth and Allium sativum L. Int J Pharm Biol Arch. 2011; 2(5):1539-1543.

Pourzand A, Tajaddini A, Pirouzpanah S, Asghari- Jafarabadi M, Samadi N, Ostadrahimi AR, Sanaat Z. Associations between Dietary Allium Vegetables and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Hospital-Based Matched Case-Control Study. J Breast Cancer. 2016; 19(3):292-300. DOI:

Wang F, Xu Y, Liu P, Li L, Liu Y. The effects of alcohol and water extracts of Allium wallichii Kunth on transplanted hepatoma, lung cancer and breast cancer of mice. Medicinal Plant. 2016; 7(11/12):56-59.

Iqbal J, Abbasi BA, Batool R, Mahmood T, Ali B, Khalil AT, Kanwal S, Shah SA, Ahmad R. Potential phytocompounds for developing breast cancer therapeutics: nature’s healing touch. Eur J Pharmacol. 2018; 827:125-148. DOI:

Arifa F, Fajrina A, Eriadi A, Asra R. Antimicrobial activity test of Genus Allium: A review. Int Res J Pharm. 2020; 11(12):17-25. DOI:

Paul A, Roy A, Banerjee N. Phylogenetic relationship of some species of Allium L. on the basis of morphological, biochemical and cytological study. Int J Recent Sci Res. 2019; 10[08(B)]:34098-34103.

Kumar D, Kumar K, Kumar S, Kumar T, Kumar A, Prakash O. Pharmacognostic evaluation of leaf and root bark of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012; 2(3):169-175. DOI:

Killedar SG, More HN, Nadaf SJ. Microscopic Evaluation of Leaves of Memecylon umbellatum Burm. Advances in Agriculture. 2014; 104849. DOI:

Akbar S, Hanif U, Ali J, Ishtiaq S. Pharmacognostic studies of stem, roots and leaves of Malva parviflora L. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2014; 4(5):410-415. DOI:

Yousaf Z, Shinwari ZK, Asghar R, Parveen A. Leaf epidermal anatomy of selected Allium species, family Alliaceae from Pakistan. Pak J Bot. 2008; 40(1):77-90.

Rudall PJ, Chen ED, Cullen E. Evolution and development of monocot stomata. Am J Bot. 2017; 104(8):1122-1141. DOI:




How to Cite

Rana, V. S., Bisht, D., Chaudhary, S. K., Gupta, R., & Sethiya, N. K. (2022). Stomatal Analysis of <i>Allium wallichii</i> Kunth Leaves: An Experimental Finding through Quantitative Microscopy. Journal of Natural Remedies.



Short Communications