Thyroid Gland in Regulation of Annual Reproduction and Oxidative Metabolism of a Tropical Bird, Perdicula Asiatica: Role of Melatonin and Environmental Factors

Jump To References Section


  • ,IN
  • ,IN
  • ,IN
  • ,IN



Bird, Environmental Factors, Melatonin, Reproduction, Thyroid
Reproductive Endocrinology


As a transducer of the environmental factors the pineal gland, together with the metabolically active thyroid gland, plays a major role in control of reproduction during different times of the year, in response to the changing environmental conditions of the tropical zone unlike in the temperate zone. Our avian model P. asiatica is a long day breeder. It is reproductively active during summer and quiescent during winter months. In this study we investigated the role of thyroid gland super-imposed by melatonin in the regulation of the annual male reproduction in this bird. The metabolically active thyroid gland presented a functional parallelism with the testicular activity suggesting that thyroid hormone is essential for reproductive activity and related metabolic energy for avian species. Our data also suggest an inhibitory effect of melatonin on thyroid gland function [weight, thyroxine (T3/ T4) level and thymidine kinase activity, THK] both during active and inactive phases of the reproductive cycle. However, this inhibitory effect was less evident during the active phase. The low level of melatonin during the reproductively active phase might be due to long days of summer which prevented the birds from being hyperthyroidic. Therefore, we suggest that the level of melatonin serves as a physiological check to control the seasonal reproductive activities of gonads and thyroid which synergistically play most important physiological roles in energy metabolism of these seasonally breeding bird P. asiatica.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




How to Cite

Verma, V. K., Yadav, S. K., Haldar, C., & Tripathi, R. K. (2016). Thyroid Gland in Regulation of Annual Reproduction and Oxidative Metabolism of a Tropical Bird, <I>Perdicula Asiatica</I>: Role of Melatonin and Environmental Factors. Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction, 19(2), 69–80.



Csernus V, Mess B. (2003) Biorhythms and pineal gland. Neuroendocrinol Lett. 24: 404-411.

Das K, Samanta L, Chainy GBN. (2000) A modified spectrophotometric assay ofsuperoxide dismutase using nitrite formation by superoxide radicals. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 37: 201–204.

Dhabhar FS, Miller AH, McEwen BS, Spencer RL. (1996) Stress-induced changesin blood leukocyte distribution. Role of adrenal steroid hormones. J Immunol. 157: 1638–1644.

Johansson AA, Eriksson L, Soveri T, Laakso ML. (2001) Seasonal variation in endogenous serum m elatonin profiles in goats: A difference between spring and fall? J Biol Rhythms. 16: 254-263

Francis JP. (2014) On the value of seasonal mammals for identifying mechanisms underlying the control of food intake and body weight. Horm Behav. 66: 56–65. Regulation of seasonal male reproductive cycle of a tropical bird 79

Garcia A, Landete-Castillejos T, Zaraga L, Garde J, Gallego L. (2003) Seasonal changes in melatonin concentrations in female Siberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus). J Pineal Res. 34: 161-166.

Gupta BBP, Thapliyal JP. (1991) Endocrine regulation of the oxidative metabolism in poikilothermic vertebrates.Zool Sci. 8: 625-634.

Gwinner E. (1989) Melatonin in the circadian system of birds: model of internal resonance. In: Hiroshige T, Honma K, eds. Circadian Clocks and Ecology. Sappora, Japan: Hokkaido Univ Press. pp. 127-145.

Haldar C, Ghosh M. (1990) Annual pineal and testicular cycle in the Indian jungle bush quail, Perdicula asiatica, with reference to the effect ofpinealectomy. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2: 73–81.

Haldar C, Pandey R. (1988) Effect of pinealectomy and photoperiod on testes and thyroid gland of Indian tropical palm squirrel, F. pennanti. Indian J Expt Biol. 26: 516-519.

Haldar C, Rai A. (1997) Photoperiod, indole-amines, and ovarian responses inthe Indian tropical jungle bush quail, Perdicula asiatica. J Exp Zool. 277: 442–449.

Haldar C, Shavali SS. (1998) Effects of continuous light, continuous darkness and pinealectomy on pineal-thyroid-gonadal axis of the female Indian palm squirrel, Funambulus pennanti. J Neural Transm. 105: 407-413.

Haldar C, Srivastava M. (1992) Gonado-modulatory effects of high humidity is pineal dependent in Indian palm squirrel Funambulus pennanti. Indian J Exp Biol. 30: 264-270.

Krause DN, Dubocovich ML. (1990) Regulatory sites in the melatonin system of mammals. Trends Neurosci. 13: 464-470.

Morera AL, Abreu P. ( 2006) Seasonality of psychopathology and circannual melatonin rhythm. J. Pineal Res. 41: 279–283.

Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. (1978) Reaction of linoleic acid hydroperoxide with thiobarbituric acid. J Lipid Res. 19: 1053-105Ots

Murumagi A, Horak P. (1998) Haematological health state indices of reproducing great tits: Methodology and sources of natural variation. Funct Ecol. 12: 700–707.

Ozturk G, Coskun S, Erbas D, Hasanoglu E. (2000) The effect of melatonin on liver superoxide dismutase activity, serum nitrate and thyroid hormone levels. Jpn J Physiol. 50: 149-153.

Prakash P, Laloriya M, Kumar P. (1998) Influence of melatonin implant on the free radical load in avian thyroid and its relation with thyroid hormonogenesis. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 46: 1249-1258.

Pevet P. (2000) Melatonin and biological rhythms. Biol Signals Recept. 9: 203-212.

Reiter RJ, Maestroni GJ. (1999) Melatonin in relation to the antioxidative defense and immune systems: possible implications for cell and organ transplantation. J Mol Med. 77: 36-39.

Rollag MD, Niswender GD. (1976) Radioimmunoassay of melatonin insheep exposed to different light regimes. Endocrinology 98: 482–488.

Sudhakumari CC, Haldar C, Senthil Kumar B. (2001) Seasonal changes in adrenal and gonadal activity in the quail P. asiatica: Involvement of pineal gland. Comp Biolchem Physiol. Part B. Biochem Mol Biol. 1288: 793-804.

Shinomiya A, ShimmuraT, Nishiwaki-Ohkawa T, Yoshimura T. (2014) Regulation of seasonal reproduction by hypothalamic activation of thyroid hormone. Front Endocrinol. 5: 12.

Singh SS, Haldar C, Rai S. (2006) Melatonin and differential effect of L-thyroxine on immune system of Indian tropical bird Perdicula asiatica. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 145: 215–221. V. K. Verma et al. 80

Todini L. (2007) Thyroid hormones in small ruminants: effects of endogenous, environmental and nutritional factors. Animal. 7: 997–1008.

Vaughan GM, Pruitt BA. (1985) Pineal induced depression of free thyroxine in Syrian hamsters. J Pineal Res. 2: 325-330.

Wajs E, Lewinski A. (1992) Inhibitory influence of late afternoon melatonin injections and the counter-inhibitory action of melatonin-containing pellets on thyroid growth processes in male Wistar rats: Comparison with effects of other indole substrates. J Pineal Res. 13: 158-166.

Wood S, Loudon A. (2014) Clocks for all seasons: unwinding the roles and mechanisms of circadian and interval timers in the hypothalamus and pituitary. J Endocrinol. 222: 39–59.