Journal of Biological Control 2022-06-05T11:31:21+00:00 Dr. Kolla Sreedevi Open Journal Systems <div id="i-scholarabout"><img class="media-object" style="width: 222px; float: left; margin: 0px 16px 15px 20px;" src="" /> <p style="margin-left: 261px;"><strong>Editor :</strong> Dr. Kolla Sreedevi<br /><strong>Online ISSN :</strong> 2230-7281<br /><strong>Print ISSN :</strong> 0971-930X<br /><strong>Frequency :</strong> Quaterly<br /><strong>Publisher/s :</strong> Informatics Publishing Limited, Society for Biocontrol Advancement</p> <p>The Journal of Biological Control published quarterly, is an exclusive journal in India devoted to the science of Biological Control. The journal publishes original research articles on all aspects relating to biological control of pests (insect pests, mites, pathogens, vertebrates and weeds) of crop plants and animal diseases. The journal has been abstracted in Review of Agricultural Entomology, Biocontrol News and Information, CABPest CD. <strong>The Journal is indexed in NAAS, UGC Mandate, Index Copernicus</strong>. The society receives matching grant from ICAR towards the cost of publication for the Journal of Biological Control.</p> </div> <p id="homecontent"><a href="" target="blank"><img src="" alt="" width="160" height="77" /></a><a href="" target="blank"><img src="" alt="" width="160" height="77" /></a><a href="#" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" /></a></p> <p><a href=";view_op=list_hcore&amp;venue=dsrh74Bjgo8J.2020" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" /></a><img src="" alt="" width="136" height="44" /></p> Evaluation of rice associated <i>Bacillus</i> spp. against sheath blight and bacterial blight of rice 2022-06-05T11:31:11+00:00 M. Surendran Anet K. Thomas Nimmy Jose A. K. Ambily <p>Bacterial antagonist,<em> Bacillus</em> spp. cultures were isolated from different places of Kuttanad region. Three effective endophytic <em>Bacillus</em> strains viz., B 15, B 17 and B 33 were tested in the separate field experiments against sheath blight and bacterial blight diseases of rice during<em> Kharif</em> 2017,<em> Rabi</em> 2018-19,<em> Kharif</em> 2019 and <em>Kharif</em> 2020. In the field study, the<em> Bacillus</em> cultures were treated as standard bioagent application methods of seed (10 g/kg), soil (1 kg/acre) and foliar (20 g/litre of water) spraying against the major diseases in rice. The rice associated native<em> Bacillus</em> cultures B 15, B 17 and B 33 were found equally effective for the sheath blight and bacterial blight diseases management. All the three native <em>Bacillus</em> species can be used as potential biopesticides against rice sheath blight and bacterial diseases in Kuttanad region.</p> 2022-06-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 M. Surendran, Anet K. Thomas, Nimmy Jose And A. K. Ambily <i>In planta</i> colonisation of <i>Beauveria bassiana</i> in cotton plant and its effect against insect pests 2022-06-05T11:31:12+00:00 M. Amutha The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of artificial establishment of <em>Beauveria bassiana</em> as endophyte in cotton plant using different inoculation methods, and aimed to determine the effect of colonisation in cotton plant on key insect pests of cotton. Eight strains of <em>B. bassiana</em> isolated as endophytes were used in this experiment. The strains <em>B. bassiana</em> isolated as endophytes were concentrated at 1×10<sup>8</sup> conidia ml<sup> ?1</sup> and bioassays were conducted under laboratory conditions on <em>Aphis gossypii</em>, <em>Spodoptera litura</em> and <em>Pectinophora gossypiella</em>. These endophytic strains demonstrated high virulence against above mentioned insects. Different inoculation methods were used to establish <em>B. bassiana</em> as endophyte in cotton plants. Endophytic colonisation of <em>B. bassiana</em> was successful in cotton plant. <em>Beauveria bassiana</em> colonised plant infested with insect was monitored at different time intervals. Survival of the insect was affected considerably in the <em>B. bassiana</em> inoculated plant. The current study clearly indicated that strains of <em>B. bassiana</em> isolated as endophytes caused the mortality of <em>A. gosypii</em>, <em>S. litura</em> and <em>P. gossypiella</em> as an entomopathogen and also as an endophyte. 2022-06-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Amutha M Efficacy of formulation of nematode antagonistic bacterium, <i>Pasteuria penetrans</i> (Thorne) Sayre and Starr, 1985 against root-knot nematode, <i>Meloidogyne incognita</i> 2022-06-05T11:31:12+00:00 Srishalini S. Swarnakumari N. Jothi G. Thiribhuvanamala G. <p>Root-knot nematodes, <em>Meloidogyne</em> spp. are extremely polyphagous pests of both tropical and subtropical crops that cause a great reduction in crop yields and quality. In vegetable production, 10–30% yield loss is caused by root-knot nematode infestation.<em> Pasteuria penetrans</em> is a hyperparasitic bacterium of <em>M. incognita</em> that has a high degree of biocontrol potential. Though, the application of <em>P. penetrans</em> in the form of root powder had been tested by a few scientists in the nurseries, it is highly impractical in the main fields. Commercial formulation of this bacterium is not available in India till date. Based on these facts, four different formulations of <em>P. penetrans viz.,</em> kaolinite clay, Emulsifiable Concentrate (EC), wettable talc powder and sodium alginate beads were prepared and tested for its parasitization potential. Among the four, EC formulation showed the highest parasitization potential of 84.6% with a spore load of 11.2/J2 (second stage juvenile). These formulations were stored under room temperature (27±1ºC) to record spore viability. The observation showed that the spores were viable upto 60 days with the highest parasitization of 84.7% in EC formulation. An<em> in-vitro</em> test was carried out in tomato plants to document the infection in <em>M. incognita</em> by endospores released from the formulations. The observation also showed that the spores released from the formulations were multiplied in the female body. Two cell stage and four cell stages of spores were observed in J3 and pre-adult stages of the nematode. The results of this study showed that the EC formulation is highly suitable for field application.</p> 2022-06-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 S. Srishalini, N. Swarnakumari, G. Jothi and G. Thiribhuvanamala Isolation and <i>in vitro</i> studies on indigenous fungi against root-knot nematode, <i>Meloidogyne incognita</i> 2022-06-05T11:31:13+00:00 Nithya Dharshini K. Jothi G. Swarnakumari N. L. Rajendran <p>The present study was carried out to evaluate the indigenous fungi from soil against the root knot nematode, <em>Meloidogyne incognita</em>. Eleven isolates were isolated and screened for their efficacy against nematode under in vitro condition for egg hatching and juvenile mortality. The results revealed that the isolate F6 showed the highest egg hatching inhibition (88.5%) followed by F11 and F7 compared to control after incubation for 72 h. The highest juvenile mortality of 73% was recorded in isolate F6 followed by F11 and F9 after 72 h. Isolate F6 was morphologically and molecularly identified as <em>Talaromyces pinophilus</em> and F9 and F11 were identified as <em>Aspergillus corrugates</em> and <em>Aspergillus nidulans</em>. Among the fungi, <em>T. pinophilus</em> was found to be highly effective against root knot nematode.</p> 2022-06-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nithya Dharshini K., G. Jothi, N. Swarnakumari And L. Rajendran Diversity and population dynamics of predatory fauna in the brinjal ecosystem under IPM and non-IPM situations 2022-06-05T11:31:13+00:00 Gokulapriya G. Chandrasekaran M. Indhumathi K. Soundararajan R. P. Yasodha P. <p align="justify">The study was conducted to assess and document the diversity, abundance of insect predators and its relationship with weather parameters in brinjal ecosystem at Horticultural farm, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Thiruchirapalli. The study has shown that the Lynx spider, <em>Peucetia viridana</em> was the dominant species with relative abundance of 19.04% and 20.39%, respectively in IPM and non-IPM plots. Among the coccinellid predators,<em> Brumoides sutularis</em> was recorded as the predominant species with relative abundance of 13.82% and 20.42% in respective IPM and non - IPM plots. Simpson and Shannon Weiner index of the present study showed that the natural enemies’ population was abundant in intercropped (IPM) plot than in the non - IPM plot. Spider population fluctuated throughout the cropping period and exhibited positive correlation with maximum temperature (r = 0.097 to 0.465), morning relative humidity and negative correlation with rainfall (r = - 0.078 to - 0.395) exhibiting that the population buildup was good at high temperature. Similarly, correlation coefficient obtained for coccinellids also exhibited that the maximum temperature (r = 0.057 to 0.443), minimum temperature and morning relative humidity had positive effect on the population. Whilst, wind velocity and rainfall (r = - 0.020 to - 0.990) implicated negative effect on the population of coccinellid predators. The neuropteran and heteropteran predators showed negative correlation with maximum temperature, evening relative humidity and positive correlation with minimum temperature, morning relative humidity and rainfall.</p> 2022-06-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Gokulapriya G., Chandrasekaran M., Indhumathi K., Soundararajan R. P. And Yasodha P. Characterisation of native <i>Bacillus thuringiensis</i> isolates toxicity to fall armyworm, <i>Spodoptera frugiperda</i> (J.E. Smith) 2022-06-05T11:31:15+00:00 M. Maheesha V. Balasubramani M. Murugan M. Raveendran G. Rajadurai T. Tamilnayagan E. Kokiladevi N. Sathiah <p>Toxicity of nine indigenous <em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em> (<em>Bt</em>) isolates collected from Tamil Nadu, India were tested against fall armyworm,<em> Spodoptera frugiperda</em>. At 30 ?g/ml concentration, two <em>Bt</em> isolates <em>viz.</em>, T350 and T532 recorded 100 per cent mortality whereas isolates T527 and T532 registered 96 per cent mortality against neonate larvae of<em> S. frugiperda</em> in leaf dip bioassay. SDS PAGE analysis of spore crystal mixture revealed the presence of <em>Cry1</em> and <em>Cry2</em> proteins with visible bands at 130 kDa and 65 kDa. PCR screening results showed the presence of<em> cry1</em> (<em>cry1A, cry1Aa, cry1Ab</em>), <em>cry2</em> (<em>cry2Aa, cry2Ab</em>) in four isolates and vip3A genes in three isolates but <em>cry9</em> gene was not present in any of the isolates tested.</p> 2022-06-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 M. Maheesha, V. Balasubramani, M. Murugan, M. Raveendran, G. Rajadurai, T. Tamilnayagan, E. Kokiladevi And N. Sathiah Natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungus, <i>Aschersonia aleyrodis</i> on citrus whitefly, <i>Dialeurodes citri</i> (Ashmead) in Kinnow mandarin in Punjab, India 2022-06-05T11:31:17+00:00 Sandeep Singh Bonam Ramanujam Rajwinder Kaur Sandhu A. Kandan B. Poornesha Rupa Kundu <p>Surveys were conducted during 2017 and 2018 in the citrus orchards of Punjab, India to record the incidence of different insect pests and their natural enemies. During October-December, Entomopathogenic Fungus (EPF), <em>Aschersonia aleyrodis</em> was found to infect nymphs and pupae of citrus whitefly, <em>Dialeurodes citri</em> on the lower leaf surface of Kinnow from the orchards of Hoshiarpur, Ludhiana, Mansa and Fazilka districts.The fungus was isolated from the infected nymphs and pupae and morphological studies were conducted to confirm the identity of the entomopathogenic fungus. <em>Aschersonia aleyrodis</em> was reported for the first time on <em>D. citri</em> under Punjab conditions and this EPF also confirmed by amplification and sequencing of beta tubulin gene showed 99.40 per cent identity in NCBI, GenBank. Hence further studies on the host range, interaction with other insect pests and parasitoids, survival and longevity should be conducted to explore the potential of this fungus as microbial biocontrol agent for citrus whitefly.</p> 2022-06-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sandeep Singh, Bonam Ramanujam, Rajwinder Kaur Sandhu, A. Kandan, B. Poornesha And Rupa Kundu Evaluation of gliotoxin phytotoxicity and gliotoxin producing <i>Trichoderma virens</i> for the suppression of damping off of tomato 2022-06-05T11:31:18+00:00 R. Jayalakshmi G. Sobanbabu R. Oviya S. T. Mehetre R. Kannan M. Paramasivam V. P. Santhanakrishnan K. K. Kumar M. Theradimani V. Ramamoorthy <p>Gliotoxin is a potent antibiotic showing antifungal activity against various phytopathogenic fungi. It is produced by Q strains of <em>Trichoderma virens</em> and gliotoxin non-producing strains of <em>T. virens</em> are designated as P strains. There is no detailed study on effect of gliotoxin on suppression of damping off of tomato caused by<em> Pythium aphanidermatum</em> and its phytotoxicity effect on tomato plants. Thus, the present study was carried out to assess the effect of gliotoxin on inhibition of mycelial growth of <em>P. aphanidermatum,</em> its phytotoxicity effect on tomato and its role on the suppression of damping off of tomato. Culture filtrates of Q strains of <em>T. virens</em> containing gliotoxin highly inhibited the mycelial growth of P<em>. aphanidermatum</em> compared to that of P strains of <em>T. virens</em>. Purified gliotoxin but not bis-thiomethyl gliotoxin effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of <em>P. aphanidermatum</em>. Tomato seeds treated with purified gliotoxin did not inhibit the germination of seeds, its root and shoot length even at higher concentration that is at 1000 ppm (fivefold inhibitory concentration against <em>P. aphanidermatum</em>). Foliar spray of gliotoxin on tomato plants did not show any phytotoxic effect at lower concentration but showed scorching effect at higher concentration. Seed treatment with gliotoxin producing Q strains of <em>T. virens</em> showed greater suppression of damping-off tomato compared to P strains of <em>T. virens</em>. This study clearly showed that gliotoxin producing <em>T. virens</em> could be used in suppression of damping-off disease incidence in tomato.</p> 2022-06-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 R. Jayalakshmi, G. Sobanbabu, R. Oviya, S. T. Mehetre, R. Kannan, M. Paramasivam, V. P. Santhanakrishnan, K. K. Kumar, M. Theradimani And V. Ramamoorthy Bio-efficacy of different biocontrol agents against shoot and fruit borer, <i>Earias vittella</i> (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in okra 2022-06-05T11:31:20+00:00 N. B. Patel B. L. Raghunandan N. M. Patel G. Sivakumar <p>Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different biocontrol agents against shoot and fruit borer,<em> Earias vittella</em> (Fabricius) infesting okra at Biological Control farm, Anand Agricultural University, Anand (Gujarat) during two successive years, <em>kharif</em>, 2018 and 2019. Among the different biocontrol agents evaluated, the plots sprayed with <em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em> @ 5 g/litre for three times at fortnightly interval witnessed lowest larval population (0.52 larva(e)/plant) and fruit damage (7.00%-number basis, 8.09%-weight basis). The treatment comprising six releases of egg parasitoid <em>Trichogramma chilonis</em> @ 50,000 parasitoids/ha was found next effective treatment with lower larval population (0.67larva(e)/plant) and fruit damage (8.19%-number basis, 9.97%-weight basis). This bio-efficacy of egg parasitoid<em> T. chilonis</em> was statistically at par with the efficacy of treatments <em>viz.,</em> Neem Seed Kernel Extract (NSKE) @ 5% and <em>Beauveria bassiana</em>@ 5 g/litre. The highest fruit yield was documented in the treatment <em>B. thuringiensis</em> @ 5 g/litre (111.02 q/ha, CB ratio 1:2.79) followed by the treatments <em>T. chilonis</em> @ 50,000 parasitoids/ha (105.10 q/ha, CB ratio 1:2.77) and NSKE @ 5% (104.64 q/ha, CB ratio 1:2.76). The significant findings of this study could be used to frame BIPM strategy for the management of shoot and fruit borer, <em>E. vittella</em> in okra.</p> 2022-06-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 N. B. Patel, B. L. Raghunandan, N. M. Patel And G. Sivakumar <i>Beauveria bassiana</i> as an effective IPM component against cotton stem weevil <i>Pempherulus affinis</i> Faust 2022-06-05T11:31:21+00:00 G. Priyatharsini K. Premalatha S. V. Krishnamoorthy N. Sathiah K. Senguttuvan <p>The Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in reduction of cotton stem weevil in ecofriendly manner is attaining importance in recent days. In present study, three treatments including IPM module 1, IPM module 2 and farmers’ practice were imposed against cotton stem weevil in a field trial. Among the three treatments, IPM module 2 which included basal application of FYM 25 t/ha and 250 kg/ha of neem cake, seed treatment with <em>Beauveria bassania</em> @10g/kg of seed, border crop with <em>Hibiscus cannabinus</em>, soil drenching with Imidacloprid 17.80 SL @ 25 g a.i./ha (125 ml/ha) at 15 DAS and placement of cotton stem bits (25 kg/500box/ha) + <em>Hibiscus cannabinus</em> stem bits (25 kg/500box/ha) + Chlorpyriphos dust 1.5 DP (2.5 kg/500box/ha) @ 30 DAS followed by earthing up @ 30 DAS recorded least stem weevil infestation of 13.21% with a yield of 1642.75 kg/ha. It was followed by IPM module 1 (21.78%) and farmers’ practice (33.56%) with yield of 1456.25 kg/ha and 1588.25 kg/ha, respectively. The mean survival of plants was also higher in IPM module 2 (94.28%) followed by farmers’ practice (88.57%) and IPM module 1 (80.00%).</p> 2022-06-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 G. Priyatharsini, K. Premalatha, S. V. Krishnamoorthy, N. Sathiah And K. Senguttuvan