Safeness and effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi for use as bioinsecticide: A mini review
Keywords:Fungi, bioinsecticide, safety, effectiveness, Bioinsecticide, effectiveness, fungi, safety
Usage of conventional synthetic insecticide to control insect pests has increased to improve crops yield and production to meet the global food demands of a growing population. However, it should not be neglected that synthetic insecticide causes negative impacts on humans, livestock as well as the environment. This review aims to provide data on entomopathogenic fungi species that can be developed into bioinsecticide to control insect pests, in order to reduce the usage of synthetic insecticide. The fungi are discussed based on two criteria, its effectiveness in controlling the targeted pests, and its safety level to humans, non-targeted organisms, and the environment. Relevant data and information on entomopathogenic fungi from various research tools including Google Scholar, NCBI, Science Direct and Researchgate were compiled into tables for comparison and analysed. Six entomopathogenic fungi namely Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Verticillium lecanii, Metarhizium (Nomuraea) rileyi, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus and Hirsutella thompsonii are proposed as having the required criteria having potential to control targeted insects by means of producing various toxins or metabolites with insecticidal properties. Five out of the six species, B. bassiana, M. anisopliae, V. lecanii and N. rileyi are safe to humans, non-targeted organisms, and the environment. Furthermore, all these fungi can be mass produced to ensure their availability to be used as a biocontrol agents. However, future studies are required for further justification for harmful metabolites produced and their impact on environment.
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