Energy Transition Considering Power Sector Reform and RE Integration into the Grid: Issues, Challenges and Way Forward
Keywords:Energy Transition, Electricity Act 2003, RE Integration, Inertia, Rate of Change of Frequency (ROCOF).
Reliable, uninterrupted and quality power supply is the key factors for economic growth of any country and become the government’s priority. To meet this requirement, the power sector has grown tremendously over last two decades in the areas of generation, transmission, distribution sector. With a total installed capacity of 395 GW(as on 31st January, 2022), India has transformed from a power deficit (peak) - 12.7% in FY 2009-10 to -1.2% in FY 2021-22. Every country throughout the globe has been trying to shift towards the renewable energy (RE) from conventional energy in order to meet the net zero emission target by 2070 in compliance with COP-26 held at Glasgow. In this context, India has set a target of 500 GW RE generation by 2030 and achieved 150 GW RE capacity as on February 2022. This transition of energy sector creates several challenges which need to be addressed for proper integration of RE sources into the grid. In this paper, at first, the background of power sector reform is briefly discussed and the role of each segment (generation, transmission and distribution) in transition of the entire energy sector is also highlighted. The role of Electricity Act 2003 in power sector reform or transition is discussed. Furthermore, various policy issues related to RE and the integration challenges into the grid are also outlined. Moreover, the effect of RE on several power system parameters such as system strength, inertia, rate of change of frequency (ROCOF) etc. are elaborated. In this context, few case studies are highlighted to show the impact of RE integration into the existing grid. Finally, few recommendations are provided to address the RE integration challenges.
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