Iron and Zinc Bioaccessibility from Sprouted, Malted and Fermented Grains as Influenced by Disodium EDTA
Keywords:EDTA, Iron, Zinc, Bioaccessibility, Sprouting, Malting, Fermentation.
AbstractIn view of the widespread prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies, there is a need to evolve food-based strategies to enhance their bioavailability from predominantly vegetarian diets. Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA), a known metal chelator, has been previously found to enhance the bioaccessibility of iron and zinc from fortified millet flours. The present investigation was undertaken to examine the effect of EDTA on the bioaccessibility of iron and zinc from germinated, fermented and malted food grains. EDTA was added to the processed foods at molar ratios of 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2, relative to inherent iron and zinc content. EDTA significantly enhanced the bioaccessibility of iron from all the processed foods examined, this beneficial effect being highly significant in the germinated and malted grains and significantly higher than the effect of the processing method per se. In the fermented foods, the effect of EDTA was to a lesser extent, except in the case of dhokla, where it was significant. EDTA significantly increased the bioaccessibility of zinc from malted grains, but this increase was only marginal in germinated and fermented grains. Germinated and fermented foods are a common part of Indian diets and are widely consumed, while malted grains find use in the preparation of weaning and geriatric foods. The results of this investigation have shown that EDTA could be used as an enhancer of bioaccessibility of iron and zinc from such traditionally processed foods. This strategy could also be adopted at the household level to improve mineral bioavailability from foods.
How to Cite
All the articles published in IJND are distributed under a creative commons license. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright of their work (all usages allowed except for commercial purpose).
Please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org for permissions related to commercial use of the article(s).
Tripathi, B. and Platel, K. Finger millet (Eleucine coracana) flour as a vehicle for fortification with zinc. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol., 2010, 24, 46-51.
Tripathi, B., Chetana. and platel, K. Fortification of sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) flour with zinc. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol., 2010, 24, 257-262.
Tripathi, B. and Platel, K. Iron fortification of finger millet (Eleucine coracana) flour with EDTA and folic acid as co-fortificants. Fd. Chem., 2011, 126, 537-542.
Tripathi, B. and Platel, K. Feasibility in fortification of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) flour with iron. LWT – Fd. Sci. Technol., 2013, 50, 220-225.
Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. (1999). Report of fifty third meeting of the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Geneva. WHO.
Hemalatha, S., Platel, K. and Srinivasan, K. Influence of germination and fermentation on bioaccessibility of zinc and iron from food grains. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 2007, 61, 342-348.
Platel, K., Eipeson, S.W. and Srinivasan, K. Bioaccessible mineral content of malted finger millet (Eleusine coracana), Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare). J. Agric. Fd. Chem., 2010, 58, 8100–8103.
AOAC. Official methods of Analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington. 2000.
Luten, J., Crews, H., Flynn, A., Van Dael, P., Kastenmayer, P., Hurrell, R., et al. Inter laboratory trial on the determination of the in vitro iron dialysability from food. J. Sci. Fd. Agric., 1996, 72, 415-424.
Hurrell, R.F., Reddy, M.B., Burri, J. and Cook, J.D. An evaluation of EDTA compounds for iron fortification of cereal-based foods. Br. J. Nutr., 2000, 84, 903-910.
Hurrell, R.F., Ribas, S. and Davidsson, L. NaFeEDTA as a food fortificant: Influence on zinc, calcium and copper metabolism in the rat. Br. J. Nutr., 1994, 71, 85-93.
Tripathi, B., Ravi, R., Prakash, M. and Platel, K. Sensory characteristics of zinc fortified millet products. Int. J. Fd. Properties., 2013, 16, 983-994.
Hotz, C. and Gibson, R.S. Traditional food-processing and preparation practices to enhance the bioavailability of micronutrients in plant-based diets. J. Nutr., 2007, 137, 1097-1100.
Krishnan, R., Dharmaraj, U. and Malleshi, N.G. Influence of decortications, popping and malting on bioaccessibility of calcium, iron and zinc in finger millet. Lebenson. Wiss. Technol., 2012, 48, 169-174.