Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Revisited


  • Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Jalandhar, Punjab, India
  • Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences, Jalandhar, Punjab, India


Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a type of hospital acquired pneumonia commonly encountered in patients who receive mechanical ventilation and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. VAP is associated with prolonged ventilation, increased antibiotic use, emergence of multidrug resistant organisms, prolonged critical care unit stay resulting in increased cost of care. It has been reported to occur in 9 to27 percent of all intubated patients. As per International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) report data summary, the overall rate of VAP was 13.6 per 1,000 ventilator days. Preventive measures, early diagnosis and treatment of VAP result in better outcome. The aim of this review was to search the literature for incidence, various risk factors, etiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of VAP. A literature search for VAP was done through the PUBMED/MEDLINE database. VAP is a commonly encountered nosocomial infection occurring in ventilated patients and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Outcome of patient with VAP depends on hospital setting, patient group, infection control policy, early diagnosis and judicious antibiotic use.


Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia, Mechanical Ventilation, Prevention.

Subject Discipline

Health Care and Hospital Management

Full Text:


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